A Critical Analysis of a Scientific Study about Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is one of the most challenging problems all over the world, in spite of numerous ways of its treatment. The disorder is mainly a psychological problem that affects a personality. Flora and Stalikas (2013) have observed a variety of theoretical models interpreting and analyzing this type of addiction. However, the changed mechanisms and etiology developed by drugs remain unexplored. The authors tend to determine these variables during their research taking into consideration different factors that may influence on the addiction. The study also analyzes internal conflicts aggravated under the drug impact where weak mental adaptation becomes more evident. This paper discusses how addicts personal monitoring can improve their treatment based on a psychological factor.
In the article, Flora and Stalikas (2013) have clearly identified the problem, showing that patients personal monitoring can improve their treatment. In order to understand better therapeutic outcomes, they tried to clarify the factors that lead to drug addiction. To a certain extent, these outcomes can be the evaluation of the factors that motivate individuals taking drugs. Based on the previous research, the study observes effective treatment methods, with an emphasis on the psychological factor as a key that motivates a person to take drugs (Granfield & Reinarman, 2014). The study raises a question about the prior approach to drug addiction that was based on the presence of pain (physical or emotional), boredom, disappointment, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and other unpleasant sensations (Maisto, Galizio & Connors, 2014). However, some experts wonder whether this approach can be relevant today because the motives for drug use have changed dramatically, and the main determinant, according to Miller (2013), has become a euphoric tune (p. 132). Thus, Flora and Stalkislook (2013) have focused solely on the reasons that motivate a person to take drugs.
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At the same time, the researchers have not explored whether these findings determine social variables, such as traditions, culture, and media influence on the spread of drug addiction in society. However, these indicators play a significant role in understanding the types of relevant treatment. Therefore, the study should have had a more objective approach to this problem. The authors have focused solely on the psychological factor of addiction, ignoring positive and negative effects of public opinion on a persons behavior. Many cases of drug abuse were not properly discussed in conjunction with certain congenital disorders of brain processes. At the same time, based on the previous findings, some people experience the discomfort due to the inherently low levels of endorphins (Miller, 2013).
The study has presented a balanced view of the numerous reasons for drug addiction taking into consideration different methods of treatment (Flora & Stalkis, 2013). A number of reasons for drug addiction have been discussed. Thus, the authors have observed that some people become depressed, carrying heavier sorrows and disappointments, trying to relax with the help of psychoactive drugs. Nevertheless, other studies give more detailed explanation how the repeated use of the drug that leads to the development of chemical dependencies (Abadinsky, 2013). It follows that further investigation is needed to identify new theoretical models that can help analyze and interpret addiction in a more holistic manner.
Furthermore, the scholars have reviewed numerous programs, such as open programs, close residential programs, pharmaceutical treatment therapy, and some others, but have not specified what strategies are more effective for patients. Moreover, the study has not specified the etiology and changed mechanisms developed by drugs. Furthermore, there are some gaps in the characteristics of the reasons for taking drugs. Based on the previous findings, the majority of people use them out of curiosity that is an essential feature of human nature. Mostly, drug addicted individuals are seeking to achieve a certain effect, such as psychoactive substances can relax and excite, or change the perception the world among other issues (Abadinsky,2013). In this respect, the authors tend to focus on the chemical dependency as a purely psychological problem, while it can include physiological components.
Methodological components are clearly evident on the different stages of the research procedure, such as sampling, analyzing, and interviewing (Flora & Stalkis, 2013). The random sampling has involved patients who were treated from drug addiction in the Drug Addiction Treatment Unit (adult rehabilitation). The total sample included 157 patients, 80.3% of which were men and 19.7% were women at the age of 30 years old (Flora & Stalkis, 2013). However, the majority of the participants were treated for the second or third time that might evidence about the low efficiency of methods of treatment. Despite of different attempts to implement various treatments, it was observed that only addicts personal monitoring can improve their treatment based on the psychological factor. Therefore, the implementing of numerous programs did not give expected results.
The method of analyzing does not reflect how the drugs affect nerve cells in the brain. However, numerous studies reveal that the continuous use of drugs affects neurotransmitters and the processes of thinking and behavior that results in circulation failure of the neurotransmitter. The reward system of the brain starts to malfunction, and drugs directly affect brain structure and the processes of thinking and behavior (Granfield & Reinarman, 2014). Analyzing the sample group, the study seems had no close contact with participants in order to understand the social reasons for taking drugs. However, the article precisely identifies the psychological structure of persons who poorly tolerate the pain and emotional stress and shows that if an addict does not have close contact with people like them, they lose confidence, and only personal monitoring can improve the treatment.
The method of interviewing presents the psychometric tests based on the psychometric validity and the needs of the project. However, it has age limitations, and it is not clear how other age-groups respond to drug use. Moreover, the results have shown that the problem of drug use should be viewed not only as a physiological problem but also as an individual problem in a particular social situation. In this case, preventive, curative and rehabilitation work acquires the new content, and, therefore, new opportunities. Similarly, addicts personal monitoring can improve their treatment based on the psychological factor. The analysis of the findings reveals that there are numerous psychological directions that are different from each in terms of their visions concerning the problem of drug addiction that requires further research and clarity.
The significance of Flora and Stalikas (2013) research is in their investigation of possible methods of treatment of drug addiction. Furthermore, they introduce the factor of readiness for change in the therapeutic practice that can give more positive outcomes for interventions. As a result, patients with better recognition of their addiction have received more chances to transit through different treatment phases. The study has also shown that patients with previous treatment experience are more likely to be aware of their addiction (Flora & Stalikas, 2013). The course of treatment usually involves a residential treatment program that, in spite of its underestimation, plays a crucial role in treatment and rehabilitation.
The article provided important details that can be used by health care professionals in treating drug addiction. For instance, a cognitive approach can be used in the explanation of the causes and consequences of drug abuse that is based on the concept of locus of control (Granfield & Reinarman, 2014). The previous studies are consistent with the present article that shows its credibility and importance (Abadinsky, 2013).
The scholars provided evidence that addicts personal monitoring can improve their treatment based on the psychological factor. The study had limitations in presenting biological and social factors that lead to addiction while concentrating primarily on psychological reasons. A sufficient improvement of methodology is needed with respect to sampling, interviewing, and analyzing the data collected from the targeted group of patients for the better understanding of their emotional state. The factor of readiness for change and recognition of personal addiction requires further development for ensuring more positive therapeutic outcomes.