Running head: ARTICLE ANALYSIS 1
ARTICLE ANALYSIS 6
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Hsieh, M.-L, Li, Y.-M, Chang, E.-T., Lai, H.-L, Wang, W.-H., & Wang, S.-C. (2011). Sleep disorder in Taiwanese nurses: A random sample survey. Nursing and Health Sciences, 13, 468-474.
Question 1: State your two specific variables. Describe the type and level of measurement for each variable (see Unit 1; e.g., nominal, interval, categorical, ratio, etc.) and explain your rationale for why you have labeled each variable with the type and level of measurement you chose.
My article discusses two evident variables. They are insomnia in nurses and work-force related factors. The two variables are quantitative or numerical variables, because they have presented as percentages, hence the nominal measurement (I struggled to use the categorical measurement exclusively. However, the article has used percentage figures. I opted for numerical as the most suitable). The article used the random ratio to portray its findings since it portrays a percentage of nurses who reported insomnia out of all the nurses. It also shows those who report that the insomnia is brought by work related issues out of other issues. This is a random ratio because both variables have meaningful differences, arise from a counting process and have a relationship with a true zero.
Question 2: Are these variables collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive? Discuss and explain in detail.
The variables relating to insomnia in nurses are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Table 2 lists all types of nurses. This includes: gender, education, nursing grade, background (ethnicity, religion), work unit, and type of hospital and others. However, information relating to work-related factors is neither mutually nor collectively exhaustive. Tables 1 and 3 are not detailed on work-related factors. They only mention working atmosphere in both tables.
Question 3: Discuss in detail the measures of central tendency used for these two variables.
The measure of central tendency is only applicable in the variable that indicates work-related factors. In Table 1, the mean is used to indicate nurses who suffer from insomnia due to their working atmosphere. It is indicated that 12.35 are poor sleepers and 13.8 are non-poor sleepers due to the working environment.
Question 4: If any fractiles (percentiles) are used in the article, describe them.
There are many percentiles evident in the article. However, I do not perceive any of them as fractiles in the sense that describe data on a given percentage. In the article, it is indicated that 3.3% and 96.7% of the male and female nurses respectively are poor sleepers. Furthermore, 64.9% and 54.9% of the poor sleepers work in medical and non-medical centers respectively. According to the data, 64.3%, 52.5%, 45.5%, 56.6%, 65.0% and 61.1% of the nurses who are poor sleepers are in medical and surgical; psychiatric; maternal and pediatric; intensive care unit/OR; community health; and others respectively. It is indicated that 59.2% of the nurses who are poor sleepers are registered nurses; 57.7% are licensed practical nurses and 60.5% are nurse practitioners. Other percentiles included an indication that an insomnia rate of 59% was identified among nurses in rotating shifts.
Question 5: Describe the measures of variation found in the article and how they were used.
My article indicated measures of variation. Table 1 indicates a mean and standard deviation in each of the variables. It is evident that a mean of 12.35% of nurses have insomnia due to their working atmosphere. The standard deviation present is 3.12. This is in comparison to 13.8% of the nurses who do not suffer from insomnia in their working environment. The standard deviation is 2.6. This indicates that the latter percentage is stronger than the former. Table 3 indicates 12.09 variance inflation factor in the working atmosphere as a factor influencing insomnia.
Question 6: Describe any discussion of the shape and distribution (normal or skewed) of the variables.
My article does not have any discussion of the shape and distribution of the variables.
Question 7: Describe the specific sample discussed in your paper. What is the sample size (n)? How was the data collected? Describe the proposed population (if any).
The specific sample discussed in my paper is 990 nurses, who were randomly picked across the hospitals in Hualien County (largest county in Taiwan). A two-stage cluster probability was used. These were the hospital cluster sampling and unit cluster sampling. The nurses had to be licensed practical nurses who had been employed full time for at least three months. The researchers gave questionnaires to the five hospitals, which represented 48.8% of nurses working in Hualien county. The researchers received 90.6 response rate (n = 897). In the submitted responses, 27 nurses failed to complete their questionnaires, 37 of the nurses held managerial or administrative positions and 172 did not work in shifts. The researchers used 661 questionnaires.
Question 8: Describe the parts of a frequency table used in the paper and the overall layout of the table. How was the sample grouped (e.g., size of groups)?
The paper does not include a frequency table. However, it indicates ratios and percentages used in these two variables. For example, the odds ratio is used to show the working atmosphere in relation to other factors than can cause insomnia. Percentages are used to indicate the various variables relating to nurses working in shifts.
Question 9: Describe one histogram or chart used in the paper. What type of chart was used? Describe the labels used in the chart. Discuss the grouping of the sample. Could any improvements been made to the chart?
The article does not have any charts or histograms. It mainly uses tables to indicate the relevant data to the research. The tables present are Tables 1, 2 and 3. They indicate the data pertaining to independent variables (Table 1), nurses characteristics (Table 2) and sleep survey (Table 3).
Question 10: Discuss the correlation analysis between any two variables. Describe in detail the relationship (strength, positive/negative, etc.) between these two specific variables.
The correlation made is between nurses insomnia and the working environment. It was identified that many nurses (64.9%) in the medical centers had suffered from insomnia as compared to 54.9% of the nurses suffering from the same in non-medical centers. However, this may not be accurate, since the number of nurses in the center and the unit in question are influential. The paper portrays this as a loose correlation. This happens because of the other factors in question. The article indicates that a nurses age and the unit of specialty has great influence. The study revealed that the younger nurses are poor sleepers. It is also clear that a nurse working in the medical and surgical unit has 64.3% chance of suffering from insomnia. One can conclude that the younger nurses have a higher chance of suffering from insomnia regardless of their work stations or work units.
Question 11: In one to two paragraphs, describe both positive and negative aspects of the paper related to any of the aforementioned questions. What is your overall interpretation of the paper related to the aforementioned questions (summary)?
The positive aspect of the paper is that it has used its own data and not the data, which was collected by other researchers. This allows researcher to evade mistakes that may have been picked by previous researchers. It also uses other researches to compare the information retrieved. However, it fails to use graphs in order to convey its information more appropriately.
The article has answered the research questions that were initially conveyed. Overall, insomnia among nurses is an emerging challenge in the health sector that should be highly considered. As the article suggests, the working environment should be adjusted in order to eliminate this challenge. Further research should be done on ways of handling this challenge.