Sep 20, 2019 in Analysis

The Service-Oriented Architecture


The essay analyzes service oriented architecture (SOA) through looking at the various ways that SOA has been reducing the cost of ownership in a business. Secondly, the essay also analyzes ways through which XML enables data exchange between clients and servers. The paper also addresses the advantages and disadvantages associated with use of standard based integration strategy. Finally, the essay looks at the existing similarities and differences between tightly coupled architecture and


Reduction of Total Cost of Ownership through SOA

SOA represents service-oriented architecture. SOA is an architectural strategy that helps to achieve alignment in the information technology systems of a business. SOA enables a business to function in a flexible and effective manner. It is evident that SOA reduces the total cost of ownership. The Total Cost of Ownership is said to be the financial estimation that entirely helps business persons to identify the direct and indirect costs incurred by a product or system. Therefore, SOA is used to bring change in the organization since it enables accomplishment of business objectives. By reducing the total cost of ownership, SOA is in a position to create cost savings measures in a company.

Ways through which SOA reduces cost

SOA is relatively common with wide reuse of shared services. Shared services can be reused so as to reduce the total cost of operation. In the business industry, multiple business units can share some different services. SOA adjusts these by bringing up services that can be used by more than one business unit. Considering that SOA enables sharing and reuse, it therefore facilitates the organization or company to reduce the total cost of ownership. Through this the organization with the help of SOA, is able to save costs by reducing the cost of ownership.

Additionally, the SOA reduces the total cost of ownership by utilizing the existing or present standard based service technologies. Adding and utilizing the capabilities of these open standards-based service technologies enables business connections. This allows business connections, process improvements across partners and usage by suppliers and customers. Thus, this brings a reduction of the total cost of ownership. The business is at this point able to thrive because there are cost savings achieved by the reduction of total costs of ownership.

Moreover, the service-oriented architecture brings information technology investments more in line with the business strategy. A better understanding of the cost tradeoffs associated with investments enables the implementation of respective strategies. When strategies are followed in line, the costs incurred in the course of action of the company, business or organizations are lowered because everything is followed up to the latter. Low costs enhance cost savings. Thus, the operation costs are reduced although the objectives of the company are met, and profits accompany.

SOA increases the readiness of the organization towards change. Through SOA, an organization is capable of finding solutions for any changes that do occur in the course of any business activity. When the configuration management in the organization is enabled, service and software updates are delivered quickly to their clients at a relatively cost friendly price. Therefore, the organization can take low risks. Hence, the total costs of ownership are reduced by the management in of high quality with few risks taken. Cost savings arises where the total cost of ownership is reduced. Thus, costs savings accompanies reduction of total cost of ownership.

Through SOA, cost savings in an organization are common since there is always a reduction of the total costs of operation at the end of the course. Therefore, many stakeholders may have to care about the SOA if they really want to prosper as they aim to reduce the total cost of operation in their respective companies or organizations.

Data and information exchange between clients and servers using XML

XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language and is used to make information more clear or an understandable thus, it makes information self-describing. It is said to be a language that generates languages. Therefore, XML basically allows for the exchange of information and more notably, in a standardized structure. Apparently, XML enables data and information exchange between clients and servers using Web Services.

Moreover, aecXML that is an XML-based language is used to present information in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry. The information is always resources such as projects, documents as well as proposals. Thus, this facilitates the exchange of AEC (Agriculture, Engineering, and Construction) data on the internet. Therefore, this helps clients to acquire information that involves the three wide areas from the internet. Through this, data is exchanged from their servers to the clients. Thereby, the aecXML facilitates the exchange of information of AEC data majorly on the internet.

Since XML is used for publishing Web pages, information can be acquired from these websites. Therefore, with XML publishing pages, clients can login into these Web pages and acquire any kind of information the individual needs. There is an exchange of information from this websites since clients search for information or rather does their research in these Web pages hence; this is an outcome of the application of the XML.

XML enables clients to access information from PDF’s. This is because database content can be converted into XML and later into HTML thus generating PDFs. This is important because clients can access these PDFs and can acquire the information they need. XML also helps the client to acquire information from websites as well as brochures. Thus, exchange of information takes place as the Website Services have these PDFs. More of this, the knowledge they get from the information in this brochures or websites helps them understand their findings better because the information is of good quality.

Additionally, XML enhances data validation. It enables data to be stored in a secure manner and for a longer period. Consequently, information stored from the past can be retrieved by the clients and is not tampered with. This enhances the exchange of data from the servers to the clients who need the data for their purposes. Considerably, XML improves data exchange through data validation that is an advantage when using the XML standards. Clients are able to exchange data through the help of XML with the servers of the Web services throughout without limitations.

Through BizTalk, which creates a database of XML-based documents, data between commercial partners is easily exchanged. The involved parties continue to manage documents in their original formats but data moves back and forth despite architectural differences. This is all because of the use of XML that enables this exchange of data by clients. 

XML is therefore ideal to use because it is text-oriented, easily transformable, and it provides a more durable information storage format. Plenty of past information can be easily retrieved with less distortions on the original content in the hence many clients can exchange data and information freely without challenges.

Loosely Coupled Architecture and Tightly Coupled Architecture

It is irrefutable to argue that there exists a deep variance between a loosely coupled architecture and a tightly coupled architecture in relation to TCO, implementation and maintenance services. Loose coupling is one of the latest innovations that have taken place in the field of computer network. Loosely coupled architecture is a term that has been used to refer to a kind of an approach whereby various computer networks are interconnected together. The process of loosely coupled architecture takes place regardless of the kind of hardware and software used.

On the other hand, tightly coupled architecture is a term that has been used by software developers to refer to a system through which the hardware and the software components or elements are not synchronized. Elements cannot operate on their own. In tightly coupled architecture both the hardware and software parts depend on each other for operations. A primary difference occurs between tightly coupled architecture, and loosely coupled architecture is that the operation of the two systems is the kind of interaction pattern that exists between the two. In tight coupling architecture, the interaction pattern is usually OO- style navigation of various objects that are complex. In loose methods of coupling system, one will find that the interaction pattern is a data-centric and has self-contained messages.

During the maintenance process of a loosely coupled system, it usually has got physical intermediary types of coupling. Conversely, tight coupling architecture physical coupling will require a direct physical link during the maintenance process. One of the primary advantages that are usually associated with loose coupling architecture is that it will make the maintenance process much easier. It happens in those cases whereby the loose coupling processes makes the application of landscape agiler enabling it to be making changes in a quick way and at the same time reducing possible risk.

In comparing implementation issues of the coupling systems, the distinction is realized because the system of architecture is loosely coupled then the system is messaged. It is usually based both the client of the remote service are unaware of how other elements are usually implemented. During the implementation process of a loosely coupled architecture, any communication that is between the client and the service is usually under the dictatorship of a schema of the message. In an implementation process involving a tightly coupled architecture system will provide direct communication process between an object and another object. In this process, the client is knowledgeable of the remote object. A tightly coupled architecture elements are more interactive more than loosely coupled components, and this will mean that they are in a position to prevent independent updates to either the server or the client.

It is irrefutable to say that the total cost of operation that commonly known as the TCO is little in a tightly coupled architecture when compared to loosely coupled architecture. In the world of business, loose coupling will benefit the B2B (Business to Business) world more than the tightly coupled architecture. In a B2B world, various businesses entities are set in place, and they are meant to operate and interact in independent ways. The argument behind this is that business relations do change rapidly.

Standards-based integration strategy

One of the basic elements that are crucial in the process of improving an organizational performance is strategic integration. Strategic integration will play a paramount role in facilitating a continuous alignment of a business plan and set strategies for the business environment that is prone to rapid change. Standard based strategic integration is a term that has been used by scholars to refer to a kind of an approach that is used to interface software elements and various business processes in an EAI or BPM approach. EAI or BPM approaches are two important elements that are used as technological devices to support the SOA (service-oriented architecture). BPM is an abbreviation that is used to refer to Business Process Management while EAI is a terminology that refers to Enterprise Application Integration. There are advantages and disadvantages that are associated with standards-based integration strategy. The following are the advantages that are with standards-based integration strategy. As mentioned earlier standards-based integration strategy will use the elements of EAI, and this turns out to be a great advantage to the integration process.


The first advantage that is associated with it is that EAI will loosen a tightly coupled connection within a short period thus we can say it is time-saving. Also, it will require little cost during the operation process. For example, an application can be used to send information or data without a consumer having any knowledge about it. All this will or can be handled by EAI if it is implemented effectively.

Another advantage that is associated with standards-based integration strategy is that the process is able includes some functionalities. Standards-based integration strategy apart from include various methods of integration it will involve other functionalities such as network administration, security and issue of security. When compared to other forms of integration standards-based integration strategy is more flexible will be able to accept change in an easy way.


Despite the above advantages, standards-based integration strategy has some level of limitations. Firstly, one limitation can be realized by looking at the process where there is usage of high TCO. This kind of strategy will use a lot of cost in its operations from fixation process to maintenance. One thing about this strategy is that apart from require much capital or its operation it will require skilled labor. Standards-based integration strategy requires a person with much knowledge to operate it and to acquire this highly skilled and well-trained labor; some coast must be incurred by the management. It will increase the total cost of operation besides it being high when compared to other forms of strategy integration in service oriented architecture.

Standards-based integration strategy is whereby the integration is heavily reliant on Hub and Spoke model. Hub and spoke model is a system that is designed to make transportation issues more easy and manageable. It does all this process through a simplification of the network routes that are used in the system. What results from this is that chances are it will result in failure from a single point of failure. The other disadvantage that comes along with standards based integration strategy is that most of its applications usually have a limited scope. Take, for example, there is an application that is set up as an interim solution. The application but was not built with the primary functioning of providing any full functionality or reuse in the days that will follow.


Conclusively, it can be argued that SOA reduces the total cost of ownership by utilizing the existing or present standard based service technologies. SOA strategy use in business has helped various businesses not only to offer their products to consumers and other trading partners using a protocol which is based on integration but will also help the service provision easy and fast depending on the architecture used. Tightly coupled is better to use when compared to lightly coupled architecture. Another conclusion derived from this writing is that XML enables clients to access information from web servers.


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