Apr 29, 2020 in Exploratory

Urban Sociology: Industrialization


It is a discipline of sociology that deals with the study of the social processes, changes occurring in the social interactions and the problems which stir policy-making and planning. The study of urban sociology entails cities and how they develop. This discipline involves the use of a particular analysis and social theory in describing trends in the cities. Cities in the present century have developed compared to cities in the tenth century. Therefore, this paper seeks to describe industrialization and how it contributed to urban development.


It refers to a period of social and economic changes transforming human groups with agrarian characteristics into an industrialized one.  The basic characteristics of change revolve around an agricultural production economy to one whose primary role is good manufacturing. This phenomenon is a stimulus to economic growth and industrial investment where workers report of an income rise and market expansion. The first industrial revolution occurred in the mid-eighteenth century in the European region with marked technological progress: a shift from the rural work to industrial labor and financial investments. The next industrial revolution occurred shortly after in the mid-nineteenth century with the invention of the steam engine. The key factors in the study of urban sociology are the social consequences that include increased urbanization that increased sizes of settlements to serve the upcoming factories that led to the adoption of the nuclear families. The changes that occurred during the 18th and 19th century impacted the current view of industrialization.


Relevance of Industrialization

The industrial revolution was crucial because it is the precursor to every aspect of business currently. A majority of the rural areas became urbanized in the revolution period starting in Britain. Advancements originating from Britain spread throughout the world. They include advancements in technology, shipping, agriculture, science, and construction. The industrial revolution in Britain made it a major technologically-advanced center of production and commerce that made its economy grow describing its origin of wealth. 

Following agricultural developments, industrialization gave rise to an increased demand for crop produce due to the rising population. The few supplies for crop production were overutilized; as a result of new technologies that included tools, machinery and fertilizers were developed quickly to increase crop production to merge the demand. Ownership of land changed that is from the nature of land ownership by nobles and tenants servant-ship duties to individualized farming. The industrial revolution changed the ownership of noble areas whereby estates began specializing in crop production while others in animal production. It was an important method for diversity that involved both classes of people as well as increasing commerce and economic growths. Fostering trade through service and good development increased foreign trade, mass production of products that flooded markets, shifting production into large-scale. The model of shifting production from small scale into large scale production using technology to increase efficiency was a millennia’s concept in country developments. 

Also, Industrialization has led to the raise of people’s income. For instance, it provides a means for a rapid and steady increase in income of people staying around urban centers. Income is a primary factor in urban sociology because indecent income impacts productivity in works people are hired. It explains how industrialization expands the physical stock of capital while improving the people’s capabilities that make them efficient and smart. Fostering good production modernized agriculture and workforce. While it was an employment avenue fostering local and foreign trade, the agricultural sector that was the original focus of industrialization was modernized for large amounts of quality yields.  

Developments in Industrialization due to the People’s way of Life

The increased demand for a better way of life during industrialization forces individuals to engage in activities that yield enough income or employment with a better income. During the Industrialization period, people were forced to use modernized methods and technology to improve production. Production increases the per capita because people in such environments are productive. Also, the increasing demand for goods in the market increases the production either through the use of technology in production or increasing the manpower. Increasing manpower during industrialization reduces the costs of production through the reduction of time. Conversely, the diverse population promotes economic activities that bring foreign capital, a contributory factor in the economic development of any urban city or nation. A developing economy that instigates people to migrate from regions of little developments to developed hubs fosters innovation and new developments such as infrastructure for balanced growth.  

Lessons from the Prerequisites of an Industrialized Urban Centre

For the industrialization of a city or urban center, the initial economy is a subsistent one in which production only settles the immediate needs of the society. Often there is the lack of a motivating force to its people. However, in the event of industrialization, the industrial revolution is the determinant wave. Individuals are motivated to start producing a surplus to minimize shortage and foster local and foreign trade that essential in economic developments. An increase in productivity raises people’s income due to increment in per capita. Once productivity in the normal environment gets to the maximum, use of advanced technology such modern techniques in the agricultural sector ensues. It explains how industrialization instigates change.


Industrialization is an integral part of urban developments. While it started in Britain, it promoted its economic growth from an ancient to a modernized one. It is an essential component that countered the steady increase in population with increased crop production. It is studied in urban sociology due to the impact it created on individuals to produce surplus aiding in trade and use of modern technologic advancements.


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