Nov 14, 2020 in Health

cognitive for children
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Cognitive development for child aged 3 to 5 years

 

3. PROBLEM SOLVING:

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4. COGNITIVE LEARNING GAMES

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT:

Children engage in more purposeful plays. A complete new level of comprehension and experience is evident in them. They normally try to impose rules and regulations to enable them to play with other children. Learning games can be created around the home (Goldberg, 2002). Some of these activities include: sorting out things according to their size or color. They help the kids to understand new ideas.

Games are often social activities (Newborg, 2005). As children play with other children, they discover how to stay with one another as they learn new skills. Play helps the children to learn intellectual skills because they will be required to make decisions in the course of interaction. Some of the activities that they can engage in include: playing with dolls, singing, climbing, digging, wearing old clothes of adults among others.

Children normally learn to solve problems when they touch and do. Sometimes they will lash out with anger when frustrated or annoyed without self-control. They also try to manipulate and complain to adults to solve problems for them. During this period, 3-5 years of age, some are very aggressive and try to solve problems on their own. They attempt to gain new problem solving skills. At 5 years, most of them are eager to please adults and solve problems to satisfy them (Voress & Maddox, 1998). Children at this stage need to be given the space necessary to make them develop problem-solving skills.

EMOTION :

Children at the age of 3-5 years start to develop personalities that allow them to be themselves. They are able to express their emotions that allow other people to understand how they feel. Most of the times children at this age can say words that express their moods. They may say they are either happy or sad immediately they change their feelings instead of just having a meltdown (Apel & Masterson, 2001).

At the age of 3 years, a child is beginning to understand his/her feelings. When he/she is happy, he/she laughs hysterically. When he/she feels sad, he/she starts crying. It shows that they are in touch with their feelings. Delayed gratification may make them upset. For example, when a child wants a snack and he/she is told to wait until dinnertime. Children use the pleasure principle: demanding for an immediate gratification. With time, children start getting in touch with other peoples feelings.

Significance of childs emotional development is evident at all times of his/her life. At 3-5 years, children start learning how to manage their feelings. They will have a strong foundation for life if they are able to interact positively, manage their feelings and understand other peoples feelings and needs.

They may try to develop autonomy by saying no to certain ideas said by adults (Public Broadcasting Service, 2008). Sometimes they say they want to do it themselves. When it becomes difficult, they cling to adults for help. In doing so, they will be developing creativity necessary for cognitive development.

INTRODUCTION

Cognitive development can be conceptualized as the development of the childs reasoning capabilities, thinking, memorizing, attending and problem-solving skills. Children develop their mental capacities from concrete to abstract, simple to complex. There are many changes that the children undergo at their early periods of life, from 3-5 years. This stage is specifically characterized by several developmental milestones. At this age bracket children are able to put into practice the learned concepts to everyday situations (Boyse, 2005). They are able to understand simple causes and effects, similarities and differences among the things they interact with in the course of their activities.

 
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Listening skill is one of the major tools that assist children as they develop at this stage. Children become eager to be more creative and start to explore the environment, especially outside their homes. Their interaction with the family members and those in their environment will help shape their personality as well as their way of thinking (Scott, 2004). It is at this stage that the children are able to notice the difference between a boy and a girl, to use scissors, to help to dress and undress themselves, to sing songs, to play with other children, and to recall a story among other issues.

In language development, children learn how to use sounds and symbols in order to communicate. They learn conversational skills. For example, they are likely to ask questions that lead to conversations. For instance, Why did you go there? A child can ask that question to draw attention of an adult and initiate a conversation with them. Children first form conceptual representations before they develop linguistic representations that help them to explain experiences (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005). The language that children use determines how they talk about events they engage in or the objects they are in touch with.

Language develops as the children socialize with the people in their environment, for example, their caretakers. During the earlier stages of life, children are able to classify different objects even without the use of language. Later, they are able to use language to encode experience. By use of language, children are able to make efficient categorization, sorting, remembering and identification (Majid et al., 2004).

Language affects cognitive development in that it enables the children to develop analogies that allow them to engage in complex thoughts. When children develop language skills, they will be at a position of learning the syntax of another language. Hence, they can acquire spatial skills that greatly assist in developing their cognition. As children continue to use and understand language in their environment, they start to form concepts. For example, a child can use the word cat. Although he/she might call many objects cat, with time he/she learns how to categorize different things and it increases his/her cognition. With time, children learn how to conceptualize objects and make meaning out of them as they are corrected by people older than them in the environment or as they use their developing senses to master the environment.

From another point of view, a child may learn spatial reasoning through understanding certain concepts. For example, when playing with a toy, a child may displace it. He/she may learn concepts, such as it is to the right/ to the left. In knowing that, a child can locate an object very fast as compared to when he or she does not understand these simple phrases (Lust, 2006). This is imperative in their cognition.

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Children are learning languages: Languages are important in cognitive development.

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Children may show different emotions depending on the situation in which they are.

A child playing a game; games lead to cognitive development.

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