Nov 20, 2020 in Health

Immunization. Annotated Bibliography





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Annotated Bibliography

Abuya, B. A., Onsomu, E. O., Kimani, J. K., Moore, D. (2011) Influence of maternal education on child immunization and stunting in Kenya. Maternal Child Health Journal, 15, 1389-1399.

The article is devoted to high mortality rates among Kenyan children in 2003. The authors research the effects of maternal education and nutritional status on childrens health and wellbeing. The data for analysis was taken from Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The current research notifies the full immunization in children whose mothers have at least primary education vs. absence of immunization in those children whose mothers do not have any formal education. The authors recommend to develop policies that improve mothers education in Kenya, which, in its turn, should improve child healthcare outcomes.

Fairbrother, G., Hanson, K. L., Friedman, S. and Butts, G. C. (2014). The impact of physician bonuses, enhanced fees, and feedback on childhood immunization coverage rates. Retrieved from

This research is devoted to examination of the connection between the effects of immunization coverage and physician remuneration for high immunization rates. The study was based on 1-year period research that was conducted among pediatricians. In the result, the percentage of children who were vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, etc. increased by 25.3%, while no significant changes were noted in other groups. At the same time, the quantity of immunizations outside the practice of participants increased, while the level of refusals remained stably high. The authors conclude that bonuses to medical personnel for immunization increase its coverage; they have powerful impact but additional factors, such as appropriate training, are required in order to reach the desired results of vaccination levels.

Fiore, A., Shay, D., Broder, K., Iskander, J., Uyeki, T., Mootrey, G., Bresee, J. and Cox, N. (2008) Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. 57 (RR-7), pp. 1-60. Retrieved from

This report is devoted to the use of influenza vaccine in the framework of influenza control and prevention program. The updated version of recommendations covers new vaccination schedules for children from 5 to 18 years, 6 months 4 years, the use of either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine or live, attenuated influenza vaccine, as well as some other important amendments. This report is valuable for medical personnel who are engaged in vaccination practices as it contains new important announcements as for the use of influenza-prevention vaccines.

Gilman, S., Koller, M., Black, R. S., Jenkins, L., Griffith, S. G., Fox, N. C., Eisner, L., Kirby, L., Boada Rovira, M., Forette, F., Orgogozo, J. -M. (2005) Clinical effects of A? immunization (AN1792) in patients with AD in an interrupted trial. Neurology, 64 (9), pp. 1553-1562.

This study is devoted to Alzheimer disease, which was interrupted by meningoencephalitis. By using placebo-controlled and other methods immunization of patients was conducted; the experiment revealed the antibody response in 19.7%. At the same time, the antibody response was low or absent for Dementia, Clinical Global Impression of Change, and some other diseases. The authors claim that results of this research allow suggesting the effectiveness of A? immunotherapy for treating Alzheimer disease.

Harboe, Z. B., Valentiner-Branth, P., Ingels, H. et al.(2013) Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark. Plos One, 8 (1)

This article is devoted to the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that was introduced as a part of immunization for children in Denmark; the program was conducted in 2007-2010. According to the results of the current research, introduction of this vaccine reduced the incidents of IPD in children younger than 5 by almost 50%. Interestingly, the research also describes some of the characteristics of children who had vaccine failure. As the result of this program it was established that PCV13 serotypes vaccine demonstrated no failures during the 8-month period after its introduction in Denmark.

Lieu, T. A., Black, S. B., Ray, P., Chellino, M., Shinefield, H. R. and Adler, N. E. (2014) Risk factors for delayed immunization among children in an HMO. Retrieved from

The study is devoted to the issue of improving the levels of timely vaccination of children. In particular, the authors are concerned about the nonfinancial factors in patients with high income that tend to delay immunization. By means of telephone conversations and immunization tracking systems 530 13-months old children were investigated. As a result, around 30% of interviewees did not know about the schedule of immunization; 13% delayed the measles-mumps-rubella immunization by 90 days and more. Among the reasons of delayed vaccination the authors outline a large number of children, unawareness of immunization schedule, and unawareness of the risks of shots. As a result, it was revealed that timely immunization does not depend on income of a family; moreover, better informational campaign should be established to remind the parents about the due dates of the next vaccination.

Marin, M., Guris, D., Chaves, S., Schmid, S. and Seward, J. (2007) Prevention of varicella: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). 56 (RR-4), pp. 1-40. Retrieved from

The article is devoted to the investigation of effectiveness of the two types of varicella vaccines (a single-antigen vaccine and a combination vaccine) in the USA. Varicella immunization started in 1995 and covered children of 12-28 months till 12 years. The current report updates the recommendations of varicella prevention. In particular, a 2-dose vaccination is recommended for children; a catch-up vaccination for those who received 1 dose; routine vaccination and prenatal assessment are also described; expanded use of varicella vaccine is introduced; vaccination requirements for educational establishments are outlined. The purpose of this article is to communicate the updated requirements of varicella immunization to wide audience.

Marks, J. D., Hoogenboom, H. R., Bonnert, T. P., Mccafferty, J., Griffiths, A. D. and Winter, G. (2014) By-passing immunization: Human antibodies from V-gene libraries displayed on phage. Retrieved from

The article is devoted to research of human antibodies in bacteria. The research is based on diverse libraries of heavy and light immunoglobulin that were obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of unimmunized donors using the polymerase chain reaction amplification. The results of the study suggest that isolation of some fragments requires additional investigation based on larger primary and secondary libraries from the binders. Interestingly, the authors claim that a single large phage display library might be used instead; it will allow to isolate antibodies against any antigen; this, in its turn, makes immunization and hybridoma technology unnecessary.

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Moritz, A., Cappelli, D., Lantz, M., Holt, S. and Ebersole, J. (1998). Immunization with porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine protease: Effects on experimental gingivitis and ligature-induced periodontitis in macaca fascicularis. Journal of Periodontology, 69(6), pp.686-697.

This study examines the clinical, microbiological, and immunological responses related to vaccination with active purified Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine protease. In the course of research, one group was vaccinated with purified Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine protease and the other one received placebo. The clinical results of such immunization did not show enough changes after vaccination; in other words, immunization did not suppress P. gingivalis. Furthermore, the authors claim that vaccination with purified Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine protease is capable to change the pathogenic flora of subgingival plaque microbiota.

Preventing pneumococcal disease among infant...(2014) [MMWR Recomm Rep. 2000] - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved from

This report is devoted to the practice of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use among infants and children. Vaccination was recommended for children from 2-23 months and 24-59 who are in risk groups of developing pneumococcal disease. This report includes ACIPs recommendations as for the schedules of application of this vaccine for various groups of children and adults who have or do not have previous vaccination experience by a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The article is especially valuable for medical practitioners who deal with vaccination of children and adults.

Orgogozo, J., Gilman, S., Dartigues, J., Laurent, B., Puel, M., Kirby, L., Jouanny, P., Dubois, B., Eisner, L., Flitman, S., Michel, B., Boada, M., Frank, A. and Hock, C. (2003) Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after A?42 immunization. 61 (1), pp. 46-54. Retrieved from doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000073623.84147.A8.

The article is devoted to research of transgenic mice; in particular, immunization against A?42 and improvement of cognitive function. In the framework of this study, 372 patients with AD were selected; some of them received IM injections of AN1792, the others placebo. The results of the study on AD patients showed high level of safety and tolerability at Phases I and II. However, after four reports about meningoenchephalitis, injections were completed; the further results of the study need to be reported after its termination. Overall, in 6% of patients meningoenchephalitis was reported; however, this reaction was not related to serum anti-A?42 antibody titers.

Rey-Cuille, M., Seck, A., Njouom, R. et al.(2012) Low immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine among children in Dakar, Senegal. Plos One, 7 (5), 2012.

The current article investigates the HBV vaccine in Senegal and Cameroon; the study included children younger than 4. The purpose was to trace the immune response, which was low for children in the two countries under consideration. Consequently, children with low response to HBV vaccine appeared at risk for Hepatitis B, diphtheria, and some other diseases. The authors claim that there should be special regulative and monitoring body created in order to control the quality of vaccines in such poorly-developed countries as Senegal and Cameroon.

Should any vaccines be required for children? (n.d.) Retrieved from

This source is devoted to vaccine safety and effectiveness regulation in the USA. The article critically investigates the proponents and opponents of vaccination arguments and outlines all the benefits and risks related to immunization. In particular, there are several practical examples of the effectiveness of vaccination on children. It is highlighted that Centers for Disease Control (CDC), American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Physicians recommend vaccination for children but it is not mandatory and should result out of free will of their parents after careful consideration of all the pros and cons of immunization.

Staples, J., Gershman, M. and Fischer, M. (2010) Yellow fever vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). 59 (RR-7), pp. 1-27. Retrieved from

In this article the authors investigate the use of yellow fever vaccine. In the form of report the current epidemic situation of yellow fever is described along with vaccine safety and immunogenicity. It is highlighted that yellow fever is characteristic to sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America; a human is infected through the bite of a mosquito. Due to the fact that there is no treatment for yellow fever, its prevention is crucial. The report also provides some risk factors for getting infected and preventive measures as well as other recommendations related to vaccine administration. The contraindications and precautions to vaccination should also be considered.

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Strachan, R. E., Snelling, T. L., Jaffe, A. (2013) Increased pediatric hospitalizations for empyema in Australia after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Bull World Health Organ, 91, 167-173.

This research is devoted to analysis of hospitalizations for empyema and pneumonia in Australia; the results are correlated with the introduction of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The article investigates the instances of hospitalization before and after the introduction of PCV7 vaccination among children from birth till 19. The results of the current study prove that in the course of 5 years after vaccination the number of hospitalizations with pneumonia among children decreased, while this number with empyema slightly increased.


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