task 3 factors influencing health promotion
Health behavior entails the actions that individuals undertake to maintain a proper health status. Individuals also take necessary steps to attain or regain a good health as crucial determinants of health behavior. The actions include regular exercising, good nutrition, and obtaining basic inoculations in order to ensure that the entire body functions properly. Apparently, there are three essential health belief theories that link to the health behavior that the paper seeks to explain. The three are Health Belief Model (HBM), Health Action Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.
Health Belief Model endeavors to explain and predict health behaviors. HBM mainly focuses on individual beliefs and attitudes. The HBM model rests upon four pillars, i.e. the Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, and the Perceived Barriers (Wanless 2004). The model assumes that people think that negative health conditions are avoidable, e.g. HIV is preventable. Likewise, individuals derive a positive expectation by taking appropriate actions, e.g. using condoms to prevent HIV. Lastly, individuals show confidence in taking precautionary measures to avoid acquiring illnesses, for example, people confidently buy and use condoms to ascertain good health behavior.
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Health Action process Model mainly emphasizes on self-esteem as a critical motivation aspect of engineering behavioral changes. Self-esteem is related to the appearance of persons, intelligence level, and physical skills. It also covers an individuals perception of how a society views him (Sheeran & Taylor 1999, p. 1635). The Health Action Model relies on a high self-esteem as well as necessary skills and techniques of resisting peer group pressure (Armitage & Conner 2000, p. 175). Other vital aspects include the motivation of individuals to conform to good health practices; lastly, it entails a crucial assessment of pros and cons of influencing a positive change. The model is mostly applicable in advocating behavioral change amongst the students to desist them from drug abuse and peer pressure in schools.
Conclusively, the theory of Reasoned Action endeavors to predict the behavior of human beings. The process aspires to separate the behavioral intention from the actual behavior by observing an individuals trends and attitudes (Wanless 2004). Reasoned Action can be applied in persuading individuals to embrace modern family planning methods by trying to change their attitudes and knowledge. Family Planning Association (FMA) seeks to encourage individuals to help families to choose the best option among various alternatives, e.g. making a choice between tablets or injections hindering conception.
Although health promotion is such a noble idea, it still encounters certain barriers from different fronts. For instance, Family Planning Association (FMA) uses the multimedia approach in advocating changes. The existence of attitudinal ambivalence towards modern FMA methods contributes to provoking arguments. Another potential conflict is the derailing information spread by the media on the side effects posing a significant threat to health promotion.
Another eye-catching phenomenon is a conflict between schools striving to promote healthy measures and the tobacco industry. Schools inform and educate on the repercussions of drugs and substance abuse (Bandura 2004, p. 154). Conversely, the tobacco industry puts attractive displays on shelves to ensure profitability at all costs. This counteractive game might in the end create a conflict between schools and tobacco industry and thus affect health promotion.
The Church strives to inform and instill moral behavior in the society (Wanless 2004). The church in its endeavors might encounter opposing sentiments from the tobacco and alcohol industries. What the Church regards as immoral is taken to be a lifestyle by the opposing industries. Conflict is imminent as the perception of church and the industries is different. Therefore, the two will come up with conflicting goals and objectives in influencing moral behavior that culminates in healthy living.
FMA endeavors to promote health by coming up with family planning awareness programs, life education centers, and forming a network of active family planning sites. These website programs are meant to promote healthy living and ensure that the masses get information about the available options. Other mechanisms that the FMA uses are integrating prevention in consultation and identifying targets for family planning (Bandura 2004, p. 161). These measures are to ascertain the efficiency of the programs. Potential threat to FMAs goals and objectives are all to do with the population growth. Population increment will enlarge production and increase profitability of industries. Therefore, manufacturing industries will advocate population increase while FMA will promote population control that leads to conflicting goals as well.
Similarly, schools must promote healthy lifestyles as everyone looks up to learning institutions as a guidance to students and models researchers. Schools establish the foundations upon which rests the future of nations (Armitage & Connor 2000, p. 185). Therefore, schools shape the destinies of individuals and are crucial in health promotion. Learning institutions promote health via informing students of health measures and researching on the best strategies for improving health in a healthy environment. The schools are instrumental organizations in influencing behavior and ensuring enhancement of healthy living. Schools will endeavor to inspire and nurture good morals in students (Wanless 2004). Moreover, schools take a firm stand against tobacco and alcohol with an aim of reducing intake of the substances. The industries, on the other hand, aspire to make profits by seeking to increase sales. Thus, there is a likelihood of the appearance of contradictory goals and objectives, and this creates a hindrance to health promotion.
In conclusion, health promotion cuts across many institutions and there must be established a mutual ground to come up with a working strategy. The ultimate decision rests with the individuals; as such, they are primarily the focal point or the target. Finally, it is imperative to note that healthy behavior is the key to healthy living and is always worth encouraging.