Running head: AMERICAN HISTORY 1
AMERICAN HISTORY 4
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1. The three characteristics of civilization are the division into social classes, written language, and advanced cities and technologies.
2. During the Paleolithic Age, humans got food through fishing, hunting, and foraging.
3. The Neolithic Stone Age began around 9000 B.C.E., and characterized by the promotion of animal domestication, cereal cultivation, and establishment of megalithic architecture.
4. The first four riverine civilizations are China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley Civilization.
5. Ancient people used Sumerian cuneiform to depict livestock and trade goods on clay tablets.
6. Ziggurats are rectangular stepped towers surmounted by the temples.
7. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an earliest epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia.
8. The Code of Hammurabi is the Babylonian law code of Ancient Mesopotamia.
9. Harappan Civilization developed in the Indus River Valley.
10. The Rig Veda was the first canonical and ancient sacred text of the Vedas.
11. The two divine histories of Hinduism are the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
12. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the end of suffering, and the truth of the path that ends suffering.
13. Three religions underlying Abrahamic faiths are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
14. Ancient Egypt was built on the Nile River.
15. Lower Egypt is located in the northernmost part of the city while Upper Egypt is located in the Nile valley and downriver to Lower Egypt.
16. The Step Pyramid of Djoser, the unfinished Step Pyramid of Pharaoh of Sekhemkhet, and the Bent Pyramid are the most significant architectural achievements of the Old Kingdom.
17. Amun is the eminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom.
18. Neolithic culture developed adjacent to Yellow River in ancient China.
19. Oracle bones were used for pyromancy and prediction of the future.
20. The Mandate of Heaven is an ancient philosophical idea that provided the emperor with the right to rule fairly in accordance with own capabilities.
21. Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion because the Jews were first who believed that God appointed them to serve as an example of holiness and ethical conduct.
22. Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) was destroyed by Assyrians.
23. Confucius wrote The Analects.
24. Persian Prophet Zoroaster called for the belief in one god.
25. Polis means the citizenship and indication of city-states.
26. The Peloponnesian War was fought by Athens and Sparta.
27. Cyrus the Great permitted the Jews to return to their Holy Land.
28. The Babylonian Empire was the name of the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great.
29. Plato was the most famous student of Socrates.
30. Zeus was the father of all Greek gods.
31. Herodotus is the father of history because he was the first historian, who documented and collected events and represented it in one account.
32. Homer wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey.
33. The Minoan civilization is the name of the early civilization on the island of Crete.
34. The Nigerian language family speaks over 400 hundred languages.
35. The two major strands of Buddhist tradition are Theravada and Mahayana.
36. A region bordering the Sahara Desert is North Africa.
37. Napata saw itself as the successor to the Egyptian pharaohs.
38. Christian Ethiopia successfully withstood the expansion of Islam.
39. The Ptolemaic dynasty succeeded Alexander the Great in Egypt after his death.
40. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were influenced by Zoroastrianism.
41. The Macedonian dynasty of the Seleucids succeeded Alexander the Great in Persia after his death.
42. The Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC.
43. The Romans fought with Carthaginians during the Punic Wars.
44. Pax Romana indicates the peace between all people inhabiting the Roman Empire.
45. The granary building, triumphal arch, basilica, amphitheater, and monumental aqueduct were the main architectural achievements during the Roman Empire.
46. Jesus of Nazareth was crucified.
47. The Apostle Paul disseminated the Gospel throughout the Hellenic world.
48. Constantinople was established as the New Rome by Constantine.
49. Rome emerged as the center of Western Christianity.
50. The council of Nicaea declared that Jesus is God, affirmed his eternality and deity, and determined the relationship between the Father and his sons as eternal.