Nov 14, 2020 in History

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American History

Question 1

 

The Second Great Awakening was a religious group in America intended to make the members of the church holy, as they waited for the reappearing of Jesus Christ. The group opposed slavery and invoked slave owners to release slaves. It led to womens exposure to religion: they were allowed to perform duties unlike ever before.

Transcendentalism was a movement against spirituality. Its representatives believed that nature and people should be good. They thought that a bad society could corrupt the good people, and that the latter should be independent in order to be pure. It led to the spirit of hard work and responsibility of human being.

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Romanticism was the movement that originated from Europe. The adherents supported the spirit of individualism and valued their history and nature. They did not support industrial revolution, political norms, and Aristotelian type of life, but emphasized the beauty of art and said that emotions played a major role in determining the way of life of a human.

Abolitionism was either informal or formal group that ended slavery in America. People advocated for purchasing the slaves freedom, and used force to free the slaves from their masters.

Domesticity was a cult that showed the difference in value between the middle and the upper class in Britain and America. The values were mostly connected to the new domestic roles of women and the changes in family as well as work environments. The movement gave women a central position in every house.

Horace Mann was a member of the House of Representatives, who brought reforms to the system of education in America as well as prompted the fast movement towards modernization. He played a major role is building public schools and that is why he is remembered as the father of education in America.

The Oneida Community was a movement that preached the purification of sins and living a holy life on earth as Jesus had returned. The adherents supported free marriages, where everybody could marry a person of his or her own choice. In this community, there existed strong criticism, which reduced bad habits and behaviors.

Dorothea Dix was a nurse in the American army and an activist in the United States mental hospital. She worked hard to see how this hospital was expanding to accommodate more mentally ill people.

New Harmony was named so after being bought by an industrialist. It was home for most research institutions and schools, and housed the first library as well as a civic school in the US. Besides, most of the houses in the region are the part of American history.

William Lloyd Garrison was a journalist and a reformer. He fought for the slavery abolition together with Isaac. His efforts led to immediate release of the slaves, who worked in America. Together with others, he founded a society that was against slavery. Besides, he struggled for the right of women involvement in public affairs.

 
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Question 2

It took place in the nineteenth century, when the British and the French grouped humanity into either masculine or feminine. People felt that women were opposite to men. The society and the church had placed a woman in an inferior place, where she would depend on a man; this made the children growing with the same concept of a woman. The world believed that women were responsible for the evil we experienced in the world. Later women realized they had the brain that was not limited to what they did, but the one that could be expanded to perform big roles. For them to be good mothers they had to be wise women.

Romanticism came from Europe in the early nineteenth century. It placed emotion before reason as well as emphasized individual reasoning and not traditional ways of thinking and making decisions. There was no strict relationship between the human kind and God. Additionally, it changed the art in America; the characters used in literature were more sensitive and free to make choices. Furthermore, romanticism introduced more women writers in the field of art.

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Major changes took place between the two periods. The economy improved greatly because the policies changed, and the middle class stated production and engaged in trade. Removal of the taxes imposed by the government boosted the economy, as the returns on trade were high. The transportation sector advanced with the various inventions; movement from one place to another became easy. Passing of information also improved due to various innovations in the field. The religion changed drastically, which was possible after various movements and revolutions that saw women participate in church matters.

The Oneida Community was a movement that preached the importance of living a free from sin life on Earth. The community members believed that Jesus had returned for the second time and that a pure life was what the church wanted. They supported free marriage and sex where anybody could marry anybody of their choice. Furthermore, the community believed in community criticism, where the whole community criticized a person for committing a crime or a sin, which reduced bad habits and behaviors.

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