Running head: CRUSADES 1
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1. What was the Latin East? Where was it (what areas did it cover)? When was it established?
The Latin East was a feudal state that the Crusaders founded. It occupied the lands of the Byzantine Empire located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. The Latin East was established after the seizure of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204.
2. What was pilgrimage? Who did it, where did they go, and why? How might this phenomenon have influenced the start of the crusades?
A pilgrimage was a spiritual journey to the holy places, such as Jerusalem, Nazareth, or Bethlehem, that was widespread among European Christians in the Middle Ages. Augustine of Hippo and Saint Jerome described the concept of the pilgrimage in their works. People of the Medieval Ages believed that the pilgrimage belonged to the form of penance for sins. The Seljukian Turks captured Jerusalem in 1065. Christians then were sure that the rescue of the Holy Land was a pious act. Therefore, pilgrims became Crusaders, and the pilgrimage changed into military campaign.
3. What was the Peasants' (People's) Crusade? How did it start, and how was it carried out? Who was involved?
The Peasants Crusade, also called the Peoples Crusade, refers to a movement of the Crusaders that entailed the journey of inexperienced and unprepared common folk to the Holy Land without official commanders. Peter the Hermit, known as a charismatic monk, appealed to all Christians, and not only to well-trained militants. He persuaded commoners to go to the Holy Land immediately. Therefore, people began their journey and followed Peter in March 1096.
4. What were the results of the First Crusade? Give 3 points.
The Crusaders conquered Nicaea, the Turkish city. Besides, they destroyed an enormous army that consisted of Seljuk Turks. They successfully repulsed the attacks by the Turkish army. Lastly, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem and killed many Muslims there.
5. What were the four crusader states founded after 1098 (the First Crusade)? How did the crusaders deal with the current inhabitants?
After the Fist Crusade, the Crusaders created four states in the Levant. The County of Edessa was the first Crusaders state that was founded in 1098. The Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli also belonged to the Crusader states. The Kingdom of Jerusalem included the following major lordships: the Lordship of Sidon, the Lordship of Oultrejordain, the Principality of Galilee, and the County of Jaffa and Ascalon. The Crusaders massacred all non-Christian inhabitants in the abovementioned regions.
1. What was the result of the Second Crusade? Was the opinion of crusading affected by this result?
The Second Crusade was an unsuccessful attempt to defeat the Muslims. The Crusaders suffered significant losses during it. The Second Crusade entailed the decline of the Crusader states. Moreover, Jerusalem became poorly protected. Such results affected the opinion of crusading and caused the Third Crusade.
2. Who were the legendary figures that participated on the Third Crusade? How successful were they?
Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin were the legendary figures who took part in the Third Crusade. Saladin was the Muslim sultan. He headed the Islamic military forces that achieved success in the Battle of Hattin. In the course of the battle, the Muslims captured Jerusalem and many cities in the Holy Land. However, Saladin could not triumph over the army led by Englands King Richard the Lionhearted. Richard the Lionhearted gained victories in the battles at Acre, Cyprus, and Arsuf, but he did not capture Jerusalem.
3. What was the original plan for the Fourth Crusade? What happened instead?
The initial plan for the Fourth Crusade was the conquest of Jerusalem. The European armies decided to sail south, to Egypt, and then enter Jerusalem. However, Alexius Comnenus asked the Crusaders to help him return his throne and become the ruler of the Roman Empire. Since Alexius Comnenus did not give the Crusaders money for their help, they captured Constantinople.
4. What were the goals of the Baltic Crusades?
The Baltic Crusades aimed to spread Christianity in the Baltic lands. Besides, the Baltic Crusades wanted the rural pagan peasants who inhabited the Baltic region to become Christians. The Crusaders were more successful in the Baltic lands compared to their activity in the Middle East.
5. What was the Childrens Crusade? Why did it occur and what was the goal? What were the results?
The Childrens Crusade was the religious movement that occurred in Europe in 1212. Many young individuals took Crusading vows and decided to save Jerusalem from the Muslims. They did not have official permission, and their plan failed. They did not reach the Holy Land. However, the young peoples action contributed to the beginning of the Fifth Crusade.