Nov 19, 2020 in History

European Exploration
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Question 1

Globalization is the process where different people, companies and communities are able to interact and integrate. The process has effects on various issues, such as culture, environment, political systems, economic development and prosperity around the various ethnic groups around the world.

Various factors triggered the development of globalization and modern trends between the periods of 1250-1750. The first was the revival of empire building. A classical example to portray this process was the development that involved the Ottoman Turks, who conquered and acquired Constantinople, which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans extended their rule over a majority of Byzantine territories and beyond. This act kept a Muslim power in charge of one of the great Christian territories and cities of the past.

This made worried Christian leaders elsewhere in the world to turn to new activities in order to compensate for the loss of influence and territory. The steady progression of explorations by Europeans along the Atlantic African coast was in part motivated by the desire to find methods of trade with East Asia that would circumvent the Islamic center of power.

The development that was clearly visible by 1450 was the steady progression of explorations by the Europeans along the Atlantic coast of Africa. This was mostly motivated by the desire to find ways to trade with the East Asia.

Another vital development that constituted the third development that played an important role in defining the new framework for this period was new military technologies. European mariners used compasses and other navigational devices. These tools were first introduced by the Chinese and the Arabs. This later gave rise to the use of guns and gun powder, which played a vital role in the creation of new empires. Guns also affected the political patters within Japan, Africa and Europe. This was with less sweeping results.

International trade increased, and for the first time, it included the Americas in the exchange. This step was major in bringing the various international regions closer together and exposing them more in global influences. The result gave rise to a process known as proto-globalization, which was a foretaste of the fuller range of contacts known as globalization but in a more preliminary sense.

The desire for new sources of wealth proved to be the major reason for European exploration. Through this, merchants and traders had the hope to ultimately benefit from the trade of spices and other luxury goods from Asia.

Through the American inclusion to global trade, a number of biological exchanges of enormous consequences took place. Certain types of foods, such as corn and potatoes, began to be grown in Asia and later in Europe. Local improvements in agriculture resulted to population increase. Population loss led to migration, particularly from Europe and Africa, into America.

The massive slavery experienced in Africa was, in fact, a response to a labor shortage in the Americas. Columbian exchange altered a variety of relationships among populations. New foods enabled the generation of population increase internationally, trumping the devastation wrought by new form of diseases.

 
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Question 2

The year 1492 marked the beginning of a new era, in which Europe marked the shape of the modern world. This period showed the extra ordinary seafaring activity of the European nations that led to high advancements in almost each department in the nautical science. Most European nations were astonished and tempted by voyages of Bartolomeu Dias, Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama out of their medieval isolation.

Thus, with the simultaneous discoveries in the East and the West, this made exploration and colonization a patriotic duty. The European nations competed to lead in maritime enterprise and entered the field as adversaries for the geographical honors.

Due to the lure of the unknown, the vision of the empire and the thirst for knowledge gave birth to the greatest period of European exploration. It was at this moment that the Columbuss epoch making landfall in America made the Atlantic Ocean open for navigation. This critical encounter reshaped the map of the universe and transformed the life of individuals in both hemispheres.

The late fifteenth century was a period of great political, military and economic activity. The art of navigation was greatly advanced by the improvements that took place in maritime technology. Most mariners were no longer restricted to coastal navigation. They could now travel further afield by the employment of long distance sea navigation in search of new trade routes.

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During the late fifteenth century, Ming government faced various fiscal problems. One of these was the inadequacy of the monetary system. In order to supplement the shortage of copper coins, the government introduced unmated silver in tax transactions. The other challenge that it faced was the increasing burden of the military expenditure that proved to be onerous. Ming armies were greatly supported by the land tax, and a substantial portion of the governmental revenue was often allocated for military expenses. The other problem was the inadequacy of governments officials wages and salaries. Due to these challenges, the Ming Dynasty Whip Reform of 1581 ordered that all of Chinas tax land had to be paid in silver. Dennis Flynn argued that without the Chinese demand to pushing up silver prices, the Spanish crown would not have earned enough from the worlds possession to keep governing them.

Hence, it is the necessity to acknowledge that under the Song and Yuan Dynasties China was able to have a functioning paper currency system, which was the first that the universe had experienced.

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