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Missouri Compromise and Slavery
Slavery was abolished only partially after the American Revolution, and the USA included slave and free states in equal parts. Missouri possible accession to the USA caused many disputes in Congress, but Missouri Compromise could help in the solution of this issue.
In 1819, Missouri asked for admission to the American Union. However, it was the slave state, and its adoption broke the balance between free and slave states. Members of Congress formulated different proposals to solve this problem. For example, James Tallmadge had requested an amendment supporting the idea of slavery cancellation in this state, but it was defeated. Thus, in 1820 Congress approved Missouri Compromise that satisfied Missouri requirements and admitted Maine as the separate free State. Moreover, they added an amendment drawing imaginary line through the Louisiana territory north of latitude 3630? that separated slave and free territories. Unfortunately, this compromise only underlined the Congress unwillingness to pass the laws abolishing slavery.
To summarize, Missouri Compromise helped to protect slave and free states to the equal extent. However, it showed the reluctance of Congress to prohibit slavery entirely.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Tecumseh was a Shawnee Indian war chef and a political leader. He fought against American colonists protecting Indian territories. Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet formed the political confederacy for the United States opposition and protection of Indian areas.
Tecumseh was an outstanding person in Indian history. He was a talented orator, a politician and a brave warrior who fought with American troops defending native territories. His younger brother Tenskwatawa called the Prophet to see different vision rallying the people around him. Moreover, he encourages the American Indians to abandon the American goods like cookware, guns, iron and alcohol for the liberation of their lands from the American power. in ,his way both Tecumseh and the Prophet created the Tecumseh Confederacy placed on Prophetstown village for prevention any future erosion of Indian lands. Tecumseh was eager to combine different Indian tribes into one powerful force against the United States.
The American government felt threatened by the Prophet and Tecumseh because they united the separate Indian tribes into one mighty force directed against the American domination. Thus, Harrison had destroyed Prophetstown and the Tecumseh Confederacy. Contrarily, Thomas Jefferson believed that the taming of the Indians should be more peaceful. He tried to assimilate the natives into agricultural and market-based society. However, if native tribes did not perceive assimilation, they were forcibly relocated to the west.
In conclusion, Tecumseh and the Prophet made a significant contribution to the fight against the American government. Creating the Confederacy testified to the extraordinary leadership qualities of these men.
Warfare in the Great War
Trench warfare was used on the Western Front during the period of World War I. It was not extremely effective, but its main goal was to drain the enemy, particularly morally. All positions had excellent engineering support and were constantly upgraded.
A typical trench network was widely used during World War I. The soldiers located in such trenches existed rather close to one another. Series of two, three and more trench lines were placed parallel to one another and were nearly one mile in depth. Moreover, the first trenches line called the outpost one included many machine gunners that were scattered behind barbed wire dense entanglements. In addition, this barbed wire was in front of the first line entangled and slowed down attacking infantry. Furthermore, during trench warfare, belligerents used chemical agents, in particular a mustard gas. Soldiers outfitted artillery grenades and shells with gas and fired in the troop target proximity. Thus, mustard gas caused many humans deaths. Finally, in 1918 Allies began to increase the tank usage that resulted in the gradual completion of trench warfare.
To summarize, trench warfare did not bring the expected results and took the long time to be built, but it helped to save more human lives.
Pan-Africanism and the Harlem Renaissance
Pan-Africanism and the Harlem Renaissance were two directions based on the cultural and intellectual identity of black people. They resulted into the development of literature, arts, and cohesion of the black humans.
Pan-Africanism was an intellectual movement supporting the idea that all African people should be unified because of various common interests. It appeared in the USA in 19th century, and its representatives stated that black humans could not live next to the white individuals and had to create their separate state. Moreover, Africa was the most favorable place for such an aim implementation.
The Harlem Renaissance was emerged in the 1920s as an intellectual, artistic, and literary movement kindling a new cultural identity of black people. Alain Locke said that Negro life was transformed through art changing from social disillusionment to pride of race. Mainly, the Harlem Renaissance appeared in the literature. However, these works did not receive the general recognition later.
Finally, both Pan-Africanism and the Harlem Renaissance supported the idea of cultural identity of black people, and the representatives of these movements believed that such people should have the equal rights as any people of the world.
World War II Cartoons
World War II was one of the most tragic events in the world history that caused numerous human deaths. Many countries participated in it, and people needed the additional replenish forces and energy. World War II cartoons were an original type of American propaganda that raised morale ridiculing enemies, in particular Germans and Japanese.
Disneys cartoon Education for Death describes the formation of Nazi consciousness from Germans birth until their death. The cartoon irony is in a distorted understanding of childrens education for the Hitlers satisfaction. Germans were obsessed with the idea of a super nation; they destroyed all Holy things like the image of Christ of democracy for the worshiping power, cruelty and Hitler. Moreover, they did not have empathy calling an eaten rabbit a weak coward.
The cartoon Herr Meets Hare shows Germans, in particular Hitler, as people with strictly limited intelligence. Many times Hare cheats Herr, but every time the last one believes him. Hare forces Herr to bit the medals, to kiss him in Hitler image, and to dance disguised in the Krimhilda. Thus, Herr and Hitler look inferior to Hare. Both this cartoon and Education for Death make fun of the Germans, their stupidity, and arrogance.
Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips cartoon by Friz Freleng depicts Japanese like intellectually limited people that always overestimate their capabilities. Similar to Germans, Japanese soldiers are racially stereotyped, and Bugs Bunny repeatedly cheats them. Images of a monkey and slant eyes underline Americans ridicule of the Japanese army. Bugs Bunny feeds them on ice-creams with bombs, but enemy soldiers do not pay attention. Thus, the Japanese are gullible, greedy, and physically imperfect.
These cartoons have two contrasting massages about Germans and Japanese. Germans are strong nation and race, and they are obsessed with mastering the world. Contrarily, Japanese are racially inferior, physically weak and lacking specific goals. Moreover, in Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips, they look like buffoons.
In conclusion, World War II cartoons were an American propaganda with the purpose to build morale. They allowed American people to release their frustration and anger through crude and ridicule humor.