Nov 19, 2020 in History

Steam Engine


2. It is difficult to choose a historical person who overcame obstacles on the way to success better than others. However, the first character who came to my mind is Napoleon Bonaparte. Looking at his achievements and incredible luck, it is hard to believe that he was a mere mortal being. When he seized the power and became the First Consul of France, the country was in the great crisis and government was a bankrupt, although it did not stop Napoleon. When some general told him that it is impossible, Napoleon replied that The word impossible is not French (Latham, 1906, p. 138). His strong leadership, economic and strategic talent, allowed Napoleon to make France the most powerful country in Europe. It would be impossible without a good luck, and Napoleon himself believed in his lucky star, being a very superstitious person. However, his lucky star left him in the most decisive moment when he was about to conquer Russia. Personally, Napoleon could handle any obstacle but when France had to fight at several fronts, he could not be present in a couple of places simultaneously. Finally, the run of luck went against Napoleon, and his last defeat in the Battle of Waterloo, destroyed him physically and morally. However, his good luck returned to Napoleon when he tried to poison himself in despair, but the poison had already lost its potency.


4. If I had a chance to counsel with some historical person concerning my career choice, then at first, I would turn to Voltaire. He would be a brilliant career counselor because he understood the nature of people, as well as their intentions and abilities like nobody else. Voltaire (1730/1901) stated that Man is free at the instant he wants to be. This statement reflects all philosophy of Voltaire, which is completely compatible with modern conception of freedom of choice. Voltaire was one of the few thinkers who took into account all opinions, regardless of their sound reasoning. I am convinced that Voltaire is the only person who could hear me out and disclose my talent. Probably, the problem is that the range of professions has been much enlarged from the times of Voltaires life and some professions became extinct. However, the most important thing while making occupational choice is to understand bents and abilities of a man, and in this respect everything remained the same. That is why, Voltaire can give a reasonable piece of advice related to the choice of profession to me and to anyone else.

7. The most influential discovery of that time was a steam engine. James Watt developed the ineffective steam pump, and opened the new possibilities of application for it. As a result, the new steam engine was adopted by manufacturers that laid the foundation of the industrial revolution in the Great Britain and the whole world. Watts steam engine became the basis for the further inventions. It contributed greatly to the discovery of railway transport and steamboat. It changed the system of manufacturing from artisan production into industrial. Steam engine became very useful in many industries, such as metallurgy and agriculture. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the role of steam engine in the history of the mankind because it was the only generator of energy before electricity and diesel engine were discovered. Nowadays, when we have electric trains, and machines or gas engine cars, steam engine may seem to be useless and ineffective, but it is still the simplest means of power generation. Steam engine could use any combustible material to produce energy.

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8. If I was able to choose the best leader for my country, I would definitely choose Frederick the Great. He was the governor of the future and greatly ahead of his time. One may say that he was just another despot, though enlightened enough. However, nobody before him had managed to create the powerful state of Prussia, when Germany was feudally divided and consisted of hundreds small principalities. Modern international society lacks of strong leaders like Frederick the Great. The policy and ideas of Frederick the Great would be applicable even nowadays. He was tolerant towards religious movements in his country, making them to coexist peacefully, and the freedom of speech was at the highest level, that even some modern countries are behind concerning this aspect. Friedrich the Great did not prohibit the right to hold private property. He developed the education system, promoted science and art. Perhaps, absolute monarchy cannot be considered as a democratic system of government. However, if there was such a governor as Friedrich the Great, he would fulfill the will of the people better than those who only pretend to be democratic. Friedrich the Great (1777) claimed that punishments should never be excessive. Violence should never displace the laws. He was convinced that it is his duty to show a better example to the people.

How do you think, is it better to make all people equal in all aspects or let them be individuals? Is it possible to combine social equality with personal individuality?

Equality was the reason for many wars and disputes. Actually, the concept of equality was forming for many years, as there were struggles for racial, sexual and class equality. The issue of equality divided men and women, the Whites and the Blacks, workers and the bourgeois. Struggle against sexual and racial inequality was really reasonable because all people were equal when they were born, and only their further deeds made them different but their sex and race always remained the same. Voltaire (1764/1901) claimed that all men would then be necessarily equal, if they were without needs. Actually, all people cannot be equal in their needs and perspectives because one who works hard and strives to be successful should not be absolutely equal with those who have no aims and goals. This kind of equality would only infringe human rights and prevent them from being individual, turning the society into the flock of spineless creatures. It is impossible to make all people morally equal, but it is necessary to make them equal physically.

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If you were a governor of state in crisis, which economic theory you would apply to pull a country out of a crisis?

There are three major economic theories laid by Marx, Friedrich Hayek and John M. Keynes. All of these theories have pros and cons. Marxs ideas seem to be effective in theory, although nobody still managed to implement them in real life. Applying Marxist economic theory in Western countries would definitely lead either to anarchy or to devastating crisis. All examples of states, which tried to base their economy on Marxist philosophy were usually tragic for economy and mournful for people. It provokes just another conflict between people with regard to their level of wealth. Marx and Engels (1848) stated that The proletariat goes through various stages of development. With its birth begins its struggle with the bourgeoisie (p. 23). Class-struggle and hostility towards wealthy people cannot provide the welfare of the society. For this reason, it would be better to apply a time-tested method such as the economic theories of Keynes and Hayek, which had already helped Franklin Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan during the crises.


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