Criminal Justice from a Global perspective
Criminal justice from a global perspective
Different global outlook of different nations to unite in terms of society, economy and politics is what is referred to as Globalization. It has had major impact on the lives of American people and the world in general since it has directly affected the movement of goods and services within the nations boundary and this has made it easier to access external financial opportunities within the countries. There has also been more support provided by different nations due to the interrelation of the markets, which has been made more effective due to the internet and satellite connection, which have made it easier to access and pass information through social networks. Some of the effects that the advancement of globalization has had on the country include advancement of technology that has seen an increase in cyber crime.
Criminal justice system should be able to keep up with new technologies. In this aspect crime fighting is directly influenced by technological advancement in the country. In the same manner, implementing strategies like radiofrequency surveillance, DNA analysis, exchange of intelligence between countries and different surveillance developments, wide police intelligence database and bilateral information transfer between countries are all effective ways the U.S criminal justice system has used to change the increase of globalization-based crimes. Cases of terrorism are investigated by an anti-terrorism legislation and changes in the screening process have been implemented. Desires to improve on the relationships that are currently existent have been expressed and activities and jurisdiction programs have been adopted. Hence, it is right to assume that the U.S criminal justice system has been impacted by globalization (Larsen & Smandych, 2007).
Differences in the types of international criminal justice systems can be found by understanding their applications like civil law system, which is the most prevalent and largest justice system globally. The main difference in civil law is that it addresses wrongs by restitution and compensation and on the fact that it still respects tradition. Unlike in the common law system, anyone can get a scholarship, and nobody is above the law except of continental justice leaders. In the common law system, there is a belief that all the laws should originate from custom and lawyers should make all the precedents and interpretations. They still have total control of the judges. Unlike in other systems, public trials are considered vital constituents. Socialist law system, also known as Marxist Leninist or Community Justice, has characteristics of positive law that is aimed at improvement. The difference from other systems includes administrative law that prevails due to the decisions that are often accepted by both judges and non-officials, who are tasked with making the laws. In Islamic system, also known as Arabic or Muslim justice, all the practices and procedures in the law are mainly derived from the Koran, which are in the form of orders or commands that govern an individuals life. Its main difference is that it is the only law system that believes that every law has a divine origin, which makes it different from other law systems (Ebbe, 1996).
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Computer crime or Cybercrimes is a criminal activity that has a computer as the main target, source and place of crime. It comprises of forgery, embezzlement, blackmail, fraud and theft, all of which involve the use of computers. The range of Cybercrime is from threats of cyber wars to the email spam. Some of its forms include theft of credit cards and bank passwords stealing. As the power of technologies improves and technology advances, opportunities of cyber-related crimes also increase. That is why it is necessary for criminal justice systems to be upgraded with technological advance in order to handle cybercrimes. Cybercrimes have considerable impact on the criminal justice system and victims of cybercrimes despite the presence of organizations and network security programs, which work to counter these cyber-related threats and crimes as the issue is still on the increase. Even with these challenges, susceptibility to the online crimes can be addressed through employers implementing training programs as part of security plan, and other related measures have been taken by organizations to correct the spread of cyber-related crimes. In this aspect, globalization has affected many people by providing new technologies and methods, which have had both pros and cons and indirectly or directly contributed to the increase of cybercrimes (Stambaugh, Beaupre, Icove, Baker, Cassady, & Williams, 2001).
Policing systems on a worldwide scale can be addressed better by looking at them from the aspect of statistics, which reveals that 17,500 International Police Agencies employ more than 800,000 people at the country, national and municipal levels. These federal law enforcements comprise of over 50 agencies. Specialized police agencies comprise of 1,721,49 state police departments, 12,502 municipal police departments and 3,086 sheriffs departments. Different federal police agencies make up national government executive branch. Some of the most common federal agencies that can be used globally include (FBI) Federal Bureau of Investigation, Secret Services, ATF, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), State Police, county police and municipal police. These and other federal law enforcement officers are often being stationed overseas as means of addressing international crimes like money laundering and terrorism (Mathieu, 2005).
The fall of Soviet Empire led to the global downfall of various armies globally. For example, in Yugoslavia and Somalia the end of cold war led to an escalation of conflicts and instability of former allies in the form of lost interest of keeping the then existent governments in power. The Iraq and Afghanistans experience with the U.S security companies, which led to serious problems like misconduct on dishonesty and their business operation practices. The peacekeeping revolution that was catalyzed by cold war tried to keep neutrality, as the earlier stated need for an improved and new peacekeeping strategy during the post cold war period was felt, which increased the instability within the state. The rapid rise and fall of the global peacekeeping order was demonstrated in Rwanda, Somalia and Bosnia in the 1990s (Larsen & Smandych, 2007). Similarly, the same was a suffering in the DRC and Darfur from low troop numbers. The U.S. Secretary of Defense hired a company to consult with the armed forces in order to unveil cost-saving measures. This move proved that there is a major role played by PMSCs. The videos of their naked corpses and deaths of 30 U.S. military service members led to the Somalia Syndrome. The infamous 1994 case of Rwanda threw light on the consequences of lack of action by the international community, which has shown that for many decades Somalia has had active PMSCs. The serious issues include piracy, illegal fishing and toxic waste dumping. Separate PMSCs have been addressed with each of three Somali governments to counteract such activities and secure maritime trades. Responsibilities of the criminal jurisdiction should reside within the U.N. This is mainly because since then there has been no state that was able to ensure that crimes should be reviewed and addressed rather than the PMSCs used.