Cyber Warfare, the New Face of War that Affects the US
The problem of cyber warfare remains rather controversial in the political context of the modern society. As the United States of America has recently got acquainted with this issue, the government is encouraged to react immediately to the hostile cyber attacks and other unfavorable actions from the side of international players. The paper demonstrates how cyber danger affects the American community and analyzes three main categories that suffer from cyber attacks the most. The document also describes federal strategies that are supposed to diminish the risks of considerable losses and promote the effectiveness of the existing preventive practices. It should be admitted that the USA searches for the international partnership and strong alliances, aimed to overcome the challenge of cyber warfare. Moreover, this issue has some peculiarities that are discussed in the following investigation.
Cyber Warfare, the New Face of War that Affects the US
Without a doubt, the importance of this issue cannot be minimized under any pretext. In the contemporary world, the potential threat has become more urgent. Nowadays it covers all spheres of social life and affects major sectors of interpersonal communication. That is why the danger of cyber warfare is worth taking into consideration. Specifically, due to the development of modern technologies, the cases of cyber attacks have become more numerous. The recent advancements have strengthened terroristic organizations and intensified their operations. As a result, the whole community is called to give a decisive answer. Thus, this article is aimed at analyzing the impact of the cyber warfare on the United States of America, discussing the historical and current context of this problem, and at explaining particular features of this issue on the governmental level.
The United States Department of Defense has been working on the development of the greatest military force in the world during a long-lasting period. As the state’s military power and authority began to prosper, some non-official subjects may launch campaigns, aimed at providing strategies that can minimize the military potential of the USA. This issue is revealed in the usage of the Internet connection and cyber attacks. Such actions have already manifested their negative influence on the country’s stability, as cyber warfare leads to great losses and engenders the dramatic tendencies in geopolitics.
To be more precise, this concept should be divided into three specific categories that affect the present state of things. There are governmental, business, and social media threats that have a great impact on the whole society. The first group of obstacles includes the realization of governmental programs, devoted to the sphere of cyber security. The United States Cyber Command conducts cyberspace operations, uses the existing cyber resources, and organizes the defense of the USA military networks. The combination of such strategies assures favorable opportunities for the further success. Unfortunately, the federal government suffers due to numerous illegal operations, realized in the cyberspace. For instance, the country has registered 61,000 cyber-security breakings during the last year. Additional costs (around 14 million dollars) have been spent in this sphere due to recent hacking attacks. The security of information appears to be a rather important problem that the official institutions try to deal with. Nevertheless, cyber crimes exhaust governmental savings and impose a threat on the national security. The most apparent risks include the cases of terrorism, espionage, and the usage of weapons of mass destruction.
The second group of challenges that affect the USA stability and integrity arise in the context of business operations. According to the statistics of the FBI, over 3,000 U.S. companies have become the victims of cyber security attacks in the latest years. Apparently, this number is growing noticeably. Hackers show their activities at different ranks of the financial system from small banks to major defense contractors. The losses of organizations appear to reach the point of 1 million dollars. Moreover, around 19 percent of the American enterprises experience massive hacking attacks on a regular basis. Summarizing all of the received data, the final damage may be evaluated at 300 billion dollars per year. As a result, such dramatic effects have a considerable influence on the U.S. economy, as they destroy its potential and create the negative prerequisites for the future development. The information security occupies one of the most important place in the business sphere. It requires around 101 billion dollars of additional costs, and this figure seems to grow in the nearest future.
The final category of threats pertains to the group of social media risks that engender public horror, mutual hostility, and general panic. The rise in social media cyber crimes is considered as an ordinary practice in the context of the latest period. The data shows that 30 percent of Americans have been already attacked. Moreover, 30,000 websites are treated as potential victims daily. The intervention into private and professional life is sure to cause dramatic consequences in social sphere, which will provide reasons for common protests. These scandals have provoked numerous manifestations and formed the pretext for social instability.
However, the most controversial risks of cyber warfare arise on the international arena, when the leading countries try to manifest their powerful positions in the context of international relations. As far as the governmental cooperation is concerned, the world community is supposed to create a policy that might provide some preventive measures. The term of international security appears to be a vital characteristic of the international affairs. Traditionally, the role of the United States of America in this domain is significant.
Indeed, the security programs are provided by the US Department of Defense Cyber Strategy. The section called “The Five Pillars” may be characterized as the framework for the United States military strategy in the context of the cyber warfare. This structure consists of five essential elements that ensure the realization of the security principles. The first level provides the preventive measures in the sphere of battle space. Remarkably, the second stage should be considered as a proactive phase that opposes a passive defense (such as computer hygiene or firewalls). In fact, an active defense is supposed to promote a rapid response to a cyber attack and stop the spread of the virus. The third component is a level that provides security of infrastructure. The following pillar prescribes the usage of collective defense that ensures the cyber security on the preliminary phase and maintains an appropriate balance in the cyber warfare defense structure. The last mechanism deals with technological change and its development. It improves computer literacy and increases the artificial intelligence capabilities.
Thus, the U.S. Cyber Strategy is promoted on the governmental level and includes major principles of the collective security, applied against the negative elements of the cyber attacks. Missions are supposed to protect, secure, and defend networking systems as well as national security, which is the most valuable issue.
As a result, governmental position is revealed in the aspect of choosing the ways of reactions and developing the potential of conducting cyber space operations. By the way, it also works on the protection of the informational network, secures valuable data, and decreases the consequences of cyber attacks. The level of preparedness pertains to the sphere of main principles that are supposed to safeguard the community from destructive outcomes of cyber attacks. The country is also believed to create international alliances and partnerships in order to share common norms of public security and diminish the threats of such attacks. Finally, these actions help to increase the international security and to promote the stability within the state.
However, not all foreign communities are likely to follow the policy of cooperation. The history shows some cases when the USA had conflicts with such countries as Iran, Russia, and China. These conflicts have demonstrated that the threat of cyber warfare is real. Moreover, they are able to affect the sustainable development of the United States. The non-announced war started in June 2010, when Iran became the victim of cyber terrorism. The statistics has proved that over 1000 nuclear centrifuges were destroyed. The case with nuclear power has affected the U.S. government and provoked the reinforcement of the existing sanctions.
In China in 2013 Edward Snowden, a trainer at the Defense Intelligence Agency, revealed the information about the interventions of the United States of America into the Chinese mobile system. This incident has caused the greatest world scandal that engendered the confrontation between the leading countries. The case of spy activity did not remain unnoticeable. As a result, the image of the American government was destroyed. The world community blamed the USA for offensive cyber operations and illegal interventions into the private business.
From this period, the Chinese government has launched a campaign of massive cyber attacks on the United States. In the political discourse, this step was treated as a relevant event. Nowadays more than 70 percent of the intellectual property is provided by cyber attacks from China. In other words, it is the business of an integrated elite cyber group, which is situated in Beijing. The truth is the fact that the Chinese military system could not compete with the might of the United States, even though investments into the military sphere were made. Therefore, this policy aimed to increase the military potential of Beijing. Furthermore, the Chinese government focuses on the commercial and government espionage. Such illegal activity influences mostly the databanks of major U.S. defense contractors. In other words, this initiative is called to disclose guarded technological secrets of the United States.
The Russian Federation, which is the next political actor, represents a slight danger for the sustainable development of the USA. Taking into consideration the era of the Cold War confrontation, the instance of cyber attacks do not appear to be a surprise. The traditional hacking from Moscow may be proved by the existence of the “troll army”, which conducts a massive disinformation campaign. The budget of such activity constitutes around 400,000 million dollars. Due to the fact that informational war leads to economic hardships caused by sanctions, it should be mentioned that Russia uses its resources on useless initiatives that do not directly affect the stability of the United States.
During the work on the presented issue, much attention was paid to the aspect of the national security and the initiatives, aimed at supporting public security. It is worth mentioning that the USA promotes the policy of preventive tactics that functions owing to the United States Cyber Command. The initiative, called “The Five Pillars”, is supposed to provide essential support to the governmental bodies and to ensure an appropriate balance on the social level. Apparently, the importance of cyber warfare cannot be underestimated. Due to the fact that this issue raises an intensive debate nowadays and puts additional pressure on the federal budget, the effective programs should be conducted in this sphere to assure the fast and proactive protection of the whole community.
In the context of April 2015, The Department of Defense Cyber Strategy made a special amendment for the “Strategy for Operating in Cyber Space.” In order to assure international cooperation, it is rather recommended to take some precautions and choose potential allies accurately. Without a doubt, some of the states may manifest a friendly policy, while others will try to break the informational system and steal valuable data of the United States.
In conclusion, it is essential to highlight the fact that the issue of cyber warfare has a great influence on the political, economic, cultural, and ideological spheres of life in the United States. Unlike an ordinary military war, it imposes threats that affect governmental, business, and social media spheres the most. It is worth emphasizing that the government promotes preventive initiatives and implements strategies that are supposed to reduce negative consequences of the foreign interventions. Therefore, due to the international cooperation, the USA may guarantee a sustainable development of its community and work on the improvent of the public well-being.