Criminology as a science, in addition to the study of crime and its causes, the individual offender and the prevention of crime problems, is exploring issues closely related to criminological problems. For example, close relationship with a number of phenomena, which are regarded as anti-social, negative social backgrounds are found in the analysis of crime. Experts in the field of preventing youth delinquency and others scrutinize different speeches and publications that are coming out, as they allow receiving information about new, sometimes unexpected aspects of the problem of public opinion, unusual offerings. However, these same publications and speeches lay fraught with danger of creating the illusion that the problem of delinquency is simply lying on the phenomena surface; moreover, it seems the analysis of crime and its causes does not require special knowledge. Many believe that one can do away with the crime being guided only by a common sense - everyday consciousness without studying and without considering the entire accumulated human experience in this respect. Moreover, the scientific advices are often rejected and even the requirements of the law with reference to an emergency are ignored. However, after a short time in these cases delinquency is rising again and is even more dangerous than before, because its causes remain unrevealed enough. New faces come up replacing the detainees or arrested criminals who were in the same social conditions as people, which previously committed suchlike crimes.
This paper will focus on female delinquency and the social factors, which paint a general picture of the current state of this crime in particular. Additionally the researcher will raise the issue of racial inequality as one of the main causative agents of juvenile delinquency.
In a rather generalized understanding these two issues, as well as many others, by the conviction of the researcher, have a single source, which consists of generally accepted norms and concepts of society, family, and neighborhood. Simply put, the environment allows a teenager, or so to speak, gives one the opportunity to commit a crime. Yet each of the issues raised is unique in its way. Therefore, the paper will proceed with the analyses with the help of specific, valuable according to the author of this work literature sources.
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention which is a part of the U.S. Department of Justice has published a rather voluminous work on crime among girls. The report argues, citing other sources that female crime tends to increase as a percentage of the total number of crimes committed by juveniles (Zahn et al, 2008). Although the said report does not give a clear answer to the question, about the main reason for the growth of female crime; it leads a wide analysis of the factors provoking the commission of crimes. Those are attitudes toward school and peers, delinquency, drug use, and early sexual activity, parental inability to counteract negative community influences, and lack of opportuni?ties for success. The undoubted advantage of the report provided by the Office of Juvenile Justice is a detailed analysis of the environment in which a conflict raised, whether it is a society, a family or a neighborhood. The other source is entirely devoted to feminism as the main social phenomenon of recent times, which has impact on the crime rate among girls. Here the author pointed out that the rise of American feminism in the late sixties and early seventies caused an increase in women's criminal activity (Gavigan, 1993). In particular, article negotiates a rapid change in the position of women in contemporary society, strengthening the role of women, as well as the success of females at previously not available to them fields. It is not difficult to agree that since the beginning, the woman was discriminated by social norms of different times. One can tell men wrote laws pleasing themselves. Take at least adultery for which a woman was strictly judged while man could easily have a certain number of partners.
In general, the notion of gender divided crime is difficult, yet such attempts had their place. For example, some sources indicate different conditions, techniques and methods of crime committed by girls and guys (Figueira-McDonough, 1992). It is explained by the fact that women are much more emotionally developed. Yet it is a fact - crime among girls is growing and the reason for this is modernization of the society in which clear boundaries in the fields of women's and men's activities were erased.
The question of racial inequality was relevant in the U.S. for a long time - it started with the oppression of indigenous Indians, which were not considered as the people, being herded into reservations and slaughtered hundreds of thousands, directly or indirectly. Then the U.S. population was supplemented by black natives of Africa, who were driven here like cattle, to be used on heavy agricultural work - mainly in the south. In the north of America the situation was better: there blacks were used as domestic servants, but the status of a slave remained for them as well. In fact, slavery was abolished in 1883 - blacks formally received the status of the U.S. citizens, but white racial superiority remained (Perez & Hirschman, 2009). In those days, blacks attended separate schools, hospitals and even had a separate place on public transport. Progressive policy changes occurred only in the 60s of XX century, when the laws were passed, equalizing social status of all ethnic groups of United States citizens.
Yet, racism in the U.S. is still strong enough. The conviction of the author of the next article is that the consciousness of the people and history of the country are the reasons for this (Hochschild &Weaver. 2007).
Country not so long ago has equalized the rights of different races through legislation. Psychologically, same laws on racial discrimination only emphasize the inequality of white and black U.S. citizens. Now the situation has become reversed. For example, if the white person strikes another white the crime is not too serious, but if a white hits a black man - it is a crime motivated by racial hatred. Laws, emphasizing that people with different skin color uneven, do not make citizens forget about racial differences. Racial discrimination is still a thorny issue in the United States, and now all citizens, both white and black have to take care of themselves.
Gender delinquency and racialization of youth are important components of the system of social stratification in the contemporary North American society. Delinquency among girls is a quite pressing social problem that is growing. This is due to a change in the values ??of equality in society and personal maladjustment of women; and the growth of women's equality with men racial inequality definitely creates problems for the legal framework. Experts taking or adapting laws to reduce the problem of racial inequality playing a risky game since a desire to achieve a positive result can only worsen the situation. The problem lays in the minds of the American population and in the struggles the country's history has passed by. Flexible legislation may become a panacea to help the society not to pay attention to the place of origin of an individual and his skin color with time. Therefore, today one cannot say that all laws aimed at eliminating racial discrimination have achieved their goal. Statuses of many of them are still declarative. Thus, the main task of the state, if it aims to achieve real equality is the rigorous application of such legislation.