Nov 20, 2020 in Law

Terrorism
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Terrorism in America

Counterterrorism

Since the early 70's every ordinary American administration had to deal with the problem of coordinating the efforts of federal agencies in the fight against terrorism. And every government has resolved the issue in its own way.

Era of international terrorism has started with a political murder of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972. It was just then that authorities have understood that the negotiations with the terrorists, the intelligence services and the efforts from the standpoint of international law are interrelated elements of the anti-terrorism strategy, and require coordination between the State Department, Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Defense and the CIA. At the international level, the coordination of the fight against terrorism has been undertaken through the framework of Interpol (police cooperation) and Organization of American States (fight with terrorism directed against diplomats) which were established in 1971. However, terrorism has not reached a critical level of threat at that date, therefore the problem of coordinating the fight against terrorism has been largely ignored at the government level. Radical changes on this issue have taken place in the Carter administration. The National Security Council, the State Department and the FBI have become responsible for the coordination of anti-terrorism efforts both abroad and inside the country.

The tragedy of 9/11 has forced the White House to create a Homeland Security Council intended to advise and assist the President in developing a strategy of internal security and become a tool for coordination of efforts by all executive agencies that produce and implement a security policy within the country. In September 2003, there has been created another coordination center the Terrorist Screening Center. Its creation was announced by Attorney General, Secretary of Homeland Security, Secretary of State, Directors of the FBI and CIA. The main focus was done on integration of all existing lists of wanted terrorists in a single database. A result of activity of 9/11 commission in the CIA started the most extensive changes since its inception. In July 2004, there was created a Management of Director of National Intelligence which was the new structure that coordinated the activities of the CIA and other intelligence agencies -. By the summer of 2005, a new tactic was formed by the CIA in the fight against terrorism: the control over the operations of the FBI and the Pentagon, the use of private airlines, prisons outside the United States, the right to liquidate, and the new rules of recruitment. In October 2005, there was adopted the Strategy of National Intelligence, according to which the CIA was assigned additional tasks, including support for democratic change in other countries. At the same time it was reformed by the most important unit of the CIA - Operations Directorate, responsible for human intelligence. National Secret Service was formed on its base.

In the late February 2009, the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence stated that it began to investigate the program of the detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects, which was used by the CIA under the President Bush. The purpose of the investigation was to uncover new facts relating to the use of this program, including the conditions of detention in secret CIA detention and interrogation methods that were used to obtain information from suspected of involvement in the activities of "Al Qaeda."

Immediately after September 11th, the Congress took temporary amendments to the legislation, known as the Patriot Act. This document is intended to help law enforcement agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Act increased the powers of the FBI and other intelligence agencies which received the right to tap telephone conversations, monitor electronic correspondence, demand data on ordered or purchased books from libraries and book stores. In addition, the responsibility for harboring terrorists was introduced.

Fear of Terrorism

 
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According to the accepted concept in American political science, terrorism is the threat or use of violence for political purposes by individuals or groups which act as on the side, or against the existing government, when such actions are intended to influence a greater number of people than immediate victims. Thus, terrorism is a mean of psychological warfare. Its main objects are not those who become victim, but those who have survived. Its goal is not a murder, intimidation and demoralization of the living. The victims are the tool, and murder is the method. By this factors terrorism is different from sabotage whose purpose is to destroy the object (bridge, power station) or to eliminate the enemy. Sometimes the purposes are the same (for example, attempted murders of political figures), but people will only talk about terrorism directed against the population.

There is a reasonable fear, when a man determines the source and magnitude of the danger and takes measures to reduce it. There is a fear of inadequate (neurotic) behavior, or when a person falls into a depression, or commit acts harmful to him. The goal of terrorists is exactly the creation of a neurotic fear. Why are we not afraid to drive a car, but we are afraid of terrorists? First of all, it is because the authorities are not interested in having people who are afraid of the car. Therefore, television does not show us mutilated bodies of road accidents victims from morning to night. The main conclusion made by scientists long time ago is the followig terrorism appeared together with the media and it is inextricably linked with it. Modern terrorism is the brother of television. It would have no meaning if its results were not reported to the every homes TV.

The fear of terrorism is an effective tool in the struggle for change in public opinion in favor of expanding the intelligence services, their powers and funding. The fear of terrorism is actively used for introduction into the mass consciousness of the image of the enemy. For example, the image of Islamic terror serves to encourage combining Western countries to counterbalance the South-East of the terrorist threat. However, there is a larger purpose. Louder and louder screams are heard calling for the restriction of the sovereignty of states and the abandonment of the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs in order to facilitate the fight against terrorism. Enough to declare a state of terrorist and one can send bombers to the most important objects of its economy and infrastructure. With its help, the Islamic world is splitting by dividing its states on terrorist and non-terrorist. More precisely "non-terrorist" Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Turkey and Jordan are the base area and sponsors of many Islamic terrorist groups (such as the wars in Abkhazia, Karabakh, Bosnia, Chechnya, Tajikistan).

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Searching and destruction of the terrorists will never eliminate terrorism because abjection and an insult often live in national culture. Therefore, ten new terrorists will come instead of one. An example is the Middle East. An important feature of the political culture of the Palestinian people is the fact that the vast majorities of Palestinian youth runs through militant organizations, i.e. at least briefly and indirectly they join those groups, which are called terrorist. Therefore, eradication of terrorism is possible only in one way: to eliminate social inequality and endemic poverty of entire regions of the planet.

Today, both the state and the intelligence agencies are using fear of terrorism that is demonstrated through the media in order to create and cultivate terrorophobia among the population. Fear of terrorism is a very convenient tool for political games.

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