Nov 16, 2020 in Literature

Social Justice for the Oppressed with the San Antonio Water System
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Social Justice for the Oppressed with the San Antonio Water System

San Antonio is one of the regions in the USA where the stocks of water are limited and the sources are restricted. According to Stockdale, Sauter, and McIntyre, San Antonio belongs to the ten biggest cities in the USA which may run out of water by 2050 if alternative sources are not found or strategic actions are not implemented. One of the main obstacles on the way to reconsideration of the San Antonio water system is the legal background. Water has always been the central problem in the discussed area. Having the English and Hispanic population, the area has both English and Hispanic laws, which creates additional difficulties. Distinguishing between land, ground, and underground water, the legal system presupposes a number of acts which define the owners of water and the procedure of its consuming (Templer). Having restricted water stocks, the citizens of San Antonio are interested in protecting water sources and conserving them. However, the level of social consciousness depends on the social status of people and their remoteness from the center of the problem of clean water supply.

 

The higher social and financial positions people have, the less interested they are in the water affairs. According to the research conducted by Brody, Highfield, and Alston, people with higher social and financial position have more possibilities. They do not think about clean water as they can afford the delivery of the latter for higher price. People with restricted financial opportunities and lower social position think about water supply every day; therefore, they are more interested in implementing the changes. The research in the sphere of the social, educational, and financial status effect on human environment protection interest shows that:

age, education and political ideology are consistently (albeit moderately) associated with environmental concern, and thus we have confidence in concluding that younger, well-educated, and politically liberal persons tend to be more concerned about environmental quality than their older, less educated and politically conservative counterparts (Brody, Highfield, and Alston 233).

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These particular findings support the idea that people with higher social status have good education that influences human income. Having higher income, people do not confine themselves to household activities and their interests are varied. Having water supply problems, richer people have access to alternative water supply that improves their condition. Furthermore, people with higher income are not going to live in restricted rural areas where the water problems are crucial; therefore, it may be predicted that distance also affects the perception of water issues.

Distance plays an important role in water issues; the longer distance from the center of the water problem is, the more preoccupied people are with conserving water sources and changing the water plan distribution. San Antonio is a geographically large region. However, there are places with greater water supply problems in comparison with others. The research conducted by Brody, Highfield, and Alston shows that those people who live distantly from the areas of high risk of water shortage may be unaware of the problem existence at all. Scientists have researched peoples awareness of the water system problems in Leon Creek and Salado Creek. The areas differ greatly by the distance from the source of water supply. The results are predictable as being distant from the problem people are not aware of it; therefore, they are not bothered with the issue. The research results clearly indicate the following:

 
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The probability that a respondent living at the minimum distance from Salado

Creek (9.6 kilometers is approximate distance) will be familiar with it, holding all other variables in the model constant, is .93 compared with .73 for Leon Creek (12.5 kilometers is approximate distance). At the maximum driving distance, the probability of a respondent being familiar with Salado Creek is .42, whereas it is only .08 for Leon Creek (Brody, Highfield, and Alston 241).

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English and Hispanic populations live under various legislation systems. Therefore, San Antonio, the place where these two nations interact closely, remains the city with controversial legal acts and complicated water system resolutions. To regulate the problem and to consider the actions which should be taken in relation to the issue, San Antonio Water Management Plan was created. The last two updates to this plan were made in 2009 and in 2012. The necessity for changes in 2012 Water Management Plan became necessary with the growth of population, changes in the Bexar Met integration, endangered species protection, and increased underground storage (2012 Water Management Plan). The law changes occurred in different years, and these changes affected the management plan of water distribution in the region. One of the difficulties still remains the limited water storage and the conflict of the two nations.

In conclusion, it should be stated that the water system problems in San Antonio influence social justice in the region (University of the Incarnate Word 163). Social status, distance, and legislation are the issues which make people consider the law differently. In addition to these factors, it is also important to state that the higher social position and greater the distance, the lower peoples interest in the problem is. The research results have shown that people from greater distances and of higher position may be even unaware of the problem. Another difficulty which creates injustice in the society in terms of water consumption is the difference in legislation. English and Hispanic population abide by different laws, which leads to many court cases. In order to solve San Antonio water system problem, it is necessary to indicate the strategic necessity of water supply to all people (including the variables mentioned above) and develop a management plan, which is going to satisfy different layers of population depending on their needs.

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