Exam 1 Human Growth and Development
Diverse bio-ecological approach systems impact chief growth steps in individuals. A microsystem refers to establishments and groups that most openly and directly control the child's growth. The areas affected include family, institute, spiritual groups, community, and peers. In realizing growth, comprehensive social aspects must be taken into contemplation. Traits may involve alignment toward eccentricity or socialism. In understanding key encouragements on progress, finer tribal, cultural, social-economic, and sex variances get deliberated (Feldman, 2013, p. 8). The microsystem or the macro style shapes the future of the child. For example, the peer step where the child chooses friends is significantly affected. The approach determines the kind of peer associates the child will associate with in future. The ecosystem approaches likewise influence major development steps. The method involves interconnections between the microsystems, relations between the family and tutors, and the relationship between the kid's peers and the kinfolk. The tactics shapes the type of rapport the youngster will have with peers. The connection can be positive or disparaging in nature. Family affiliation with the child also affects the stage. A family can outline the kind of peer companions the child will relate with in the process of developing. The attitude also defines the child's assertiveness in relations. The exosystem methodology comprises links between a communal setting, in which the individual does not have an active role, and the person's immediate context. A child's involvement at home may get swayed by the other parent's experience at work. A maternal might receive a preferment at work that requires more travel. The factor might escalate a conflict with the other parent and change contact patterns with the child. The change inspires a major growth step like the approach the child gets on the parent and the act of adoring one parent more than the other. The macro system approach describes values in which persons live. The cultural context of a child may affect or influence development steps like choice and area of marriage. The factor arises since members of a cultural group share mutual personality, heritage, and values (Rosenthal, 2010, p. 23). Cultural and social beliefs influence person's major progress steps. The chrono system line involves designing of ecological events and changes over the life course as well as social-historical circumstances. Effects of divorce on children might influence the child's decision to marry or not to wed in future. Through lifetime growth, chief development steps get inclined. Changes get accomplished by various world encounters that influence conduct in both subtle and obvious ways. Other defining factors include history-graded inspirations, age-graded factors, societal cultural-graded influences, and non-normative life happenings. The features affect choices made in future as they constitute a constant growth process (Feldman, 2013, p. 8).
Nature, from this perspective, refers to qualities, attitudes, and capabilities that are hereditary from one's parents. Natural surroundings incorporate any factor that gets produced by a scheduled unfolding of genetic information. Nurture denotes environmental impacts that shape conduct. Influences may be biological, communal, and socio-economic (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006, p. 793). Somatic growth represents progress involving the body's physical makeup, including the intellect, nervous system, physiques, and reasons. Besides, the need for nourishment, drink, and sleep is also intricate. Nature influences whether eyes are blue or brown, whether hair is thick, and so on. Environment also commands brain expansion. Acumen gets influenced by nature and is determined primarily by inherited hereditary factors. Natural surroundings are also responsible for the person’s growth from the fetus level to an average adult (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006, p. 795). Cognitive growth is development, which involves the ways that change and ensure growth of intellectual capabilities and impact behavior of a person. Nurture inspires growth of talents and overall behavior. Personality development represents growth, which involves enduring characteristics that distinguish one person from another and can change over a life span. Temperament gets determined by nature when personal traits are inherited from parents. Mannerisms shape the individual into what he/she will be in future (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006, p. 796). Social growth is the way in which individual's interactions with others and their social relationships grow, vary, and remain firm over the course of life. Nature uses genetic coding to help in social expansion, hence impacting some positive or adverse traits of an individual. Qualities describe how a person interacts with others. However, nurture gets utilized to improve positive qualities and diminish the effect of negative qualities in a child (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006, p. 799).
The Psychoanalytic Theory studies how early infantile experiences, especially the effects of close interactions with family and caretakers, contribute to individual development. In the theory, the insentient is at least as prominent in development as the cognizant, more accessible part of the mind. (Santrock, 2014, p. 23). The theory aids understanding of human progress by attempting to perfect anguish by bringing subconscious directives into the alert mind for handling.
The Cognitive Theory’s standpoint emphasizes processes, reasoning, and language as the most contributory aspects of development (Santrock, 2014, p. 26). The theory emphasizes individual’s active cognitive construction in the present. The theory contributes to understanding of human development by focusing on active processes of thinking and construction of awareness. The theory addresses life changes through new and better ways of perceiving experiences, showing that determined people have the ability to change throughout the lifespan.
The ethological perception includes the powerful impact of evolutionary processes on human growth, which is a less subjective, albeit inherent encouragement (Santrock, 2014, p. 32). The perspective helps understand human improvement by focusing on the power of the mind from a wider angle as it is developed over time and through adaptive evolutionary processes.
The Psychoanalytic Theory’s perspective enables individuals to transcend their traditional perspective lens that gets created early in life. Viewpoints facilitate persons with functioning on the basis of new awareness and circumvent personal views.
Psychology also contributes to the understanding of human performance through functions. Main standpoints include behaviorist, psychodynamic, humanism, rational, biological, and evolutionary psychology perspectives (Rosenthal, 2010, p. 31).
Changes in setting and ecological factors have significantly affected growth of my personality traits that I inherited from my parents. Traits get influenced through interactions with a new environment. The trait of self-composure impressively changes even during dire events. Occasional fits of anger get swayed by situations when I meet myself rather than by any innate behavior characteristics. The factor arises due to the effect of mutual determinism, communication of behavior, background, and person's variables such as insight (Biesanz, West, & Oi-man, 2003, p. 905). New environment comes with new experiences that reshape the development of the brain through their impact. A different setting gets associated with diverse demands of taking accountability and conforming to norms. The factor has considerably changed my personal traits inherited from my parents in the quest of adjusting and adapting. My new surroundings at school get characterized by influences from my peer group. The peer group influence has significantly changed my character traits. The change relates to strength and reinforcement. Education has also changed my temperament features that I inherited from my parents. The school background has impacted me positively and has changed my qualities. Unlike home where decisions are made by my older siblings, at school I make my own decisions. The factor has given the sense of being a learner. The new environment has also affected my religious upbringing. In the institution, there exist different denominations and religious sects unlike my home area where there is one religion. Exposure has affected me, resulting in my having a religion different from my parents’ one. Other environmental factors that have facilitated development of my personality traits include technology inspiration, varying financial conditions, and the media. These factors have motivated development of inherited personality characteristics.
Determination of qualities is an active union between genetic and ecological influences, representing a center of association and a creative prospect of new response functions for traits development. During the growth process, the genotype relates to the surroundings in complex ways to produce the phenotype. It is the phenotypic manifestation of individual physical and behavioral features that scientists study to understand how genes and the background interact to produce mannerisms. Human characteristics and behavior are a joint outcome of inborn and ecological factors (Rosenthal, 2010, p. 36). Relations between genetics and setting are classified into three types. The types include active genotype influences, passive genotype-environment impacts, and evocative genotype-environment influences. A child grows to have an explicit nature that obtains a particular form due to the effects of two major contributing factors. The issues are the genetic structure inherited from parents and mutual experiences a child has with respect to daily social interaction with the surrounding environment. Genetic influences get identified in physical features, acumen, temperament traits, behaviors, and psychological disorders. Development of a baby becomes significantly influenced by the prenatal environment. The setting determines qualities the child will have after birth. Sometimes, the environment can physically damage genes or they can spontaneously mutate. Damaged genes when passed to the child result in genetic disorder traits. Nearly all human individual traits, features, and deeds are the outcome of the combination of and interaction between nature and nurture. Various phenotypes are chosen to conform to particular surroundings, giving rise to different personalities.
Given the way the brain and the nervous system develop, the brain stem or lower segments of the brain becomes essential for the neural development of an infant. Brain stem maturity at delivery is vital. This is so because it is what allows the newborn to sustain life. The brain stem offers an environment for main life-supporting reflexes present at birth like the conscious state, breathing, feeding, and digestion. (Rosenthal, 2010, p. 38). Besides, the factor provides a conducive environment for elimination and sleep in addition to core sensory inputs. The factors include visualization, hearing, and somatic senses. The brain stem is an essential part of the mind as nerve links between motor and sensory structures pass through the brain stem. The central nervous system gets regulated by the brain stem. The surrounding is also essential in other rudimentary functions, including heart rate. Diverse cultures and subcultures have their opinions of suitable and inappropriate parenting, just as they have dissimilar progressive objectives for children (Feldman, 2013, p. 8).
Civilization and culture in which a toddler grows up influence daily patterns of conduct. In my modern American evolution, active parenting comprising the imposing parenting style is encouraged. The method gets characterized by the parent giving sensible demands, setting reliable limits, expressing warmth and care, and listening to the child's point of view. However, this is opposing to other cultures that support moderate styles. In our culture, children get high self-confidence and communal skills as products of commanding parenting principles. In other cultures, firm parenting is seen as more helpful as it deals more with conformity and compliance. For instance, first-generation Chinese American children raised by strict parents do similarly well in school as their peers raised under the same style. In my culture, children are taught stereotypes that go along with our race as well as races of others right from infancy to maturity. These typecasting can have a strong effect on their daily patterns or behavior. Personally, I come from an interdependent culture with the immigrant background. In our interdependent cultures, children are typically socialized to handle their families and their families in turn control them. Extended family members incorporate predecessors, aunts, uncles, and cousins. Optimal growth of an infant includes the idea of being able to sacrifice individual goals for the good of the group. The factor critically influences newborns' daily patterns of deeds. In comparison, other people practice the individualistic culture. These people are from the mainstream U.S. culture. Thus culture is different from ours as youngsters are encouraged to take choices and strive assertively to achieve them. Parents use daily situations to encourage children to make their choices. Social ideals influence the trajectory of infant development to adulthood. In other cultures, mothers orally praise their toddlers' actions and inspire their children to play alone and select their toys. In comparison, Filipino-American moms are observant and directive with their babies, holding them in their laps and guiding their activities. Culture has a vital influence on language progress. An infant will grow knowing and learning the mother tongue that is usually the culture's official dialect. Culture and class also influence cognitive development where those of lower class and ethnic clans perform less successfully than their counterparts from the renowned class. It affects infants since birth and impacts their daily behavioral patterns. The factors stated influence daily behavior patterns with account for the fact that early infantile services are often the first point of contact with cultures. Other influences on infants include feeding practices where decisions get based on an array of factors, including parents' skills, family demands, and cultural beliefs. (Rosenthal, 2010, p. 41). Traditions relating to introduction of solid food and social expectations also vary from culture to culture. Infants’ behavior development gets influenced culturally. When newborns learn to walk, they have little or no judgment of what is safe. Thus, cultures with unguarded open fires or large water bodies might have to limit infants’ movement.