Nov 19, 2020 in Politics

Ethical Issues in the Data Collection

There are ethical issues that must always be taken into consideration when organizing some data collection. Data collection is costly as it may cost health workers energy and time to finish their surveillance forms. It takes the health coordinating organizations some time and money to gather, examine, interpret and disseminate surveillance results and data. Surveys are resource demanding. The collection of data also costs for the people in the population from which the data are gathered discomfort, potential harm and a certain amount of time. Before starting a planning process, therefore, one should ensure that the results of the data will be disseminated widely, employed to revise or implement a program, use the least invasive and costly data collection and to be truly be needed.


One should put in mind that the collection of data in emergencies is essential to guide program decisions. Data collection for this purpose should not be delayed if the collection poses fewer risks to groups or individuals. In some instances, an official approval is needed for research activities that involves the human contact; hence, one must explore the local regulations before undertaking the data collection. Since many emergency affected areas of populations are least partially dependent on aid for the basic desires of life; and those offering aid undertake the research, and such populations are taken as more vulnerable to research coercion than others are. Moreover, not all data collections from humans need a formal ethical review. Most public health activities are exempted since they are being the initial population assessments and not intended to add to a body of the scientific knowledge. However, they need to be verified in every locality. The process needs to be started early if a formal ethical review is essential since a final approval may take months to be obtained.

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Types of Participative Roles

A participative decision-making role is a type of decision transfer from a senior member to subordinates. The several types of participative roles are discussed below.

Democratic Leadership Role

This is also referred to as a participative leadership role. It is a type of the participative leadership role where group members undertake a more participative role in the process of decision-making. It involves encouraging members to share ideas, synthesizing the information into a possible decision and facilitating a conversation.

Autocratic Participative Role

This is similar to a collective style where leaders are in control of the final decision. It is where the members of an organization are not involved; hence, the results are the responsibility of a manager. It is a working style to be employed during any emergency.

Consensus Participative Role

In a consensus participative role, a manager or a leader delegates the whole responsibility and control of a decision to the members. The decisions to be made are the best for all the individuals of the group or the organization are involved. The teamwork is essential in this style and brings members together.

Delegated Participative Role

This is where a decision maker delegates the partial or full responsibility of decision making for a specific area of concern to an expert for better management results. The leader will still be responsible for the compilation of a report. This process engages the members of the organization or group and makes them creative and motivated.

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Importance of Program Evaluation to Decision Makers

Program managers and decision makers should realize the significance of and the requirements for evaluating programs as a foundation for making good decisions. It offers evaluation tools and models for making point-in-time and ongoing evaluations including problems and coming up with a resolution, risk assessment, and mitigation, trade-off and a cost-benefit analysis, as well as data gathering and decision making methods. Program evaluation also modifies the design of future iterations of a program to improve it. There is a potential for employing the evaluation in order to better future decisions about a program delivery and design beyond the immediate reactions from participants concerning what they like.

Types of Evaluation Questions and Methods

Evaluators have many questions and employ several methods to address them. The major questions include what a question is or the scope and the definition of any problem or issue is. Conceptualizing and formulating methods can be used including focus groups, brainstorming, nominal group methods, brainwriting, Delphi methods, stakeholder analysis, concept mapping, as well as the input and output analysys.

Also, there is a question where a problem is and how serious or big it is. The method that best suits it needs the assessment; it includes the use of sample surveys, a qualitative research, and an analysis of existing sources of data, focus groups and interviewing the constituent population.

Another evaluation question and method is how the technology or the program is to be delivered to address the issue. This involves an exploratory causal modeling or a multiattribute utility theory, decision-making methods, and simulation methods like the implementation and project planning. How well the technology or a program is delivered is another evaluation question. This takes into consideration the quantitative and qualitative monitoring methods. There is also the use of the implementation assessment and management of information systems.

It also enquires the type of evaluation that is feasible. In this case, the evaluability assessment is employed here, including the standard techniques for choosing a good evaluation design. The final evaluation question is the effectiveness of the technology or a program. In this case, one would pick from correlation and observational methods for demonstrating whether the preferred effects have taken place, and experimental methods for determining if the effects observed can be characterized to the intervention and not other sources.

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The Right Time to Evaluate Programs

After going through the steps 1 and 2, the stakeholders should have a better understanding of the technology or a program and a final consensus. This is the time when the evaluation becomes a focus, which includes establishing the best questions and design. Evaluation relies on the decision that the program does not need to be evaluated at any point. It rather indicates that the right time for evaluation relies on the questions being asked, who is asking and what is to be done with the information. There are a series of the decision criteria that assists in determining the best evaluation focus since evaluation resources are always limited.


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