Human Beings Development
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Approaches to Ontological Issues in Cordova and Gift of Democracy
Human ontology is one of the central philosophic issues for many prominent thinkers. A thorough investigation of this question includes many aspects of the individuals life and the life of society. Among them are such as the origin of a human being, the interrelation between the personal development of an individual and influence of other social members and environment on it. There are numerous attempts to give answers to these questions. Philosophers use different concepts to prove their thoughts. Most of the thinkers agree that there is a close connection between the universe and a human being as its part. Therefore, there is a close connection between all the creatures in the world, both the objects of animate and inanimate nature.
The author Viola Cordova is not an exception, as in her work How It Is: Native American Philosophy, she discusses various dimensions of human ontology. First, the author actively considers the interrelation between human ontology and APC. According to the common theological myth, the roots of human beings creation derive from the dumb matter, which was Gods material for the creation of a person. Therefore, there is a close connection between a person and the universe in the human ontology because of the material a human being is believed to have been made of. At the same time, Native Americans approach relies on the connection between the universe and a person through the definition of consciousness, its role, and functions. It is believed that consciousness does not have any limits and it is a distinguishing feature of everything. Meanwhile, communication is a privilege given only to some living species. Consciousness unites stones, trees, nature, and all the people as each of them has unique consciousness. Contemporary society has developed a few approaches to the way of human beings development. The first one is that each individual is a part of something big and general. This concept is insulting for the contemporary West, whose outlook is entirely based on the individualism, which means that each person is not a part of social being but an autonomous, independent, and unique creature. However, such self-determinacy of the Western people makes them easy victims of manipulation, as they do not have other values except self-interest. Moreover, a sense of oneself as a part of something greater develops positive features in a persons character. It leads to the development of responsibility. The person becomes more responsible, as he or she feels that sequences of his or her action affect not only him or her but also other members. Therefore, it gives the sense of personal importance for society in general. Meanwhile, individualism separates a person from society and makes him or her too concentrated on himself or herself. The contemporary West also actively develops a theory of singularity that encourages the development of inequality and injustice to numerous social and cultural groups. The point of singularity is in the recognition of only one correct direction of human beings development the European one. It is considered that the humankind developed in a single way, with a shared beginning and a shared teleological course of development. Therefore, the Western concept has a certain type of a modern person. Those who correspond this type are recognized to be developed people while those who do not are simply considered to be undeveloped or on their way to becoming developed. Therefore, such an approach does not take into account different circumstances, under which various social groups were developed. That is why singularity creates obstacles to the development of diversity in society. Therefore, those, who do not accept the proposed way of contemporary progress, have to remain at the same civilizational stage.
Another important aspect that evidently shows the initial roots of the development of American values relates to Iroquois politics. Nowadays, it is widely known that the Indians made their contribution to the gaining of valuable knowledge on how to survive in certain environmental conditions by Americans. However, there is also a significant role of the Iroquois in the formation of democratic values in American society. Whereas the history of creation of democracy is officially the entire merit of the Grounding Fathers, there are some historical facts that the Grounding Fathers had relied on Iroquois politics in their work. The basic elements of Iroquois politics were the examples of perfect democratic society. The Iroquois Constitution paid proper attention to the rights and obligations of the governmental bodies. The most interesting and surprising fact is the role of women in the policy of the states. As it turned out, the women had rights to dismiss Chiefs if they failed to fulfill their obligations appropriately. This clause of the Iroquois Constitution is a unique evidence of a progressive attitude to a woman as an equal member of society. It ruins the myth about the patriarchal system in the Indian tribes. However, there was even more significant advantage in the Iroquois laws. All the issues related to the well-being of entire society should be solved with a direct participation of society. It meant that the Chiefs had to take the decisions of the global importance, relying on the view of society. One of such questions was war. This aspect is neglected by the modern US authorities, as only the President and Congress are entitled to deal with this kind of questions. However, the Iroquois approach was more democratic. Moreover, it helped to prevent wars, as the process of social negotiations gave two advantages. First, it allowed discussing, comparing, and weighing all the possible courses of events. Second, the long procedure of decision-making gave more time for finding the ways of the peaceful conflict resolution. Another wise principle used in Iroquois politics was the determination to find consensus in all situations. Such an approach helped to eliminate potential armed conflicts both inside the country and with the neighboring states. All the mentioned advantages made Iroquois political and legal systems an important source of inspiration for the US Grounding Fathers.
All the above-mentioned issues finally lead to one of the actual questions of modern US society. There are many discussions in society about native peoples in the USA. At the same time, the equity of all peoples, the right to self-expression and tolerance are proclaimed as the main values of the American people. Under these circumstances, there should be no disputes related to this issue. Multiculturalism should become the dominant concept in society as this approach helps to develop the mutual respect to all the diversity of human beings. This is of crucial importance. The matter is that the contemporary world community recognizes diversity only in that dimension, which coincides with the modern understanding of the proper level of development. Therefore, indigenous people of the Amazon undergo forcible measures of progressive development. However, their initial lifestyle is not undeveloped; it is just different from the European or American perception. Thus, it is important to accept the diversity of the peoples in the USA in all its aspects.
In conclusion, it is necessary to say that philosophic questions on the development of human beings play a significant role in the formation of a social structure of the community and further relations between its members. The community of each country includes different cultural and ethnic groups that have special features. As the representatives of these groups interact within the frames of one society on the daily basis, it is important to develop the high level of tolerance among the members of society. It is even more important to implement the acceptance of social diversity in the social consciousness, which will lead to the harmonic and productive co-existence of different groups as the members of one society.