Nov 14, 2020 in Politics

Physician-Assisted Death


Young, Robert. "Professional Integrity and Voluntary Medically Assisted Death." Medically Assisted Death (2007): 113-136. Print.


Young in his book argues that health care professionals apply double standards in various scenarios when it comes to maintaining their professional integrity. In most cases, the physician-assisted suicide has been perceived as unethical and being in violation of medical professional integrity. Young argues in favor of the medical critics who appeal for consideration of the legalization of voluntary physician-assisted suicide in order to challenge the compatibility with medical integrity. Young also makes arguments about the case by supporting the legal and moral permissibility of the particular cases of professionally assisted suicide alongside the responses given to the counter arguments. Besides, Young believes in legalization of voluntary euthanasia, but is fully opposed to involuntary euthanasia. He, therefore, provides some regulations that ensure protection of the patients so that the voluntary euthanasia does not become abused, hence preventing medical personnel from taking the advantage of the vulnerable people.

Van Leeuwen, Evert and Gerrit Kimsma. "Problems Involved in the Moral Justification of Medical Assistance in Dying: Coming to Terms with Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 913.1 (2006): 157-173. Print.

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The article by van Leeuwen and Kimsma is known as the 'physician-assisted death in perspective'. This article analyses the Dutch experience with euthanasia after a thirty years of observation. Unlike other works on euthanasia that are authored by representatives of the nations that regard the practice as illegal and can only be done in secret, the article by van Leeuwen and Kimsma applies observations of real clinical behaviors and empirical data. The practice of physician-assisted dying (PAD) has grown to levels that are deemed right for integration since the beginning of the century when the Dutch Society of Medicine strived to realize PAD. The article also explores the effects of PAD on caregivers, including the families and nurses, as well as physicians. From the various interviews, there is a clear indication of emotional involvement whereby the physicians who perform the euthanasia appear to suffer later from mixed feelings of discomfort. Confronted with a request to end a life is itself a situation that causes conflict among the physicians that is of ethical, philosophical and psychological concerns. That is the way the Dutch see the problem.

Slight, Ben P. "Could Physician-Assisted Suicide be Classified as a Service under Article 49 of the European Community Treaty?" Medical Law International 10.2 (2009): 139-163. Print.

According to Ben P. Slight, there is a need to consider physician-assisted suicide (PAS) as a 'service'. This issue is to be put under the European Community Treaty in Article 49. It appreciates the idea that if PAS is to become a 'formal service', it is not likely that European governments would not give opportunities to terminally ill citizens to exercise their rights by obtaining PAS in guided jurisdictions. Slight instead believes that the terminally ill people should be accorded a right to end their life at will. Slight gives insights into the political issues resulting from euthanasia and the role of the legislature in undermining the legalization of the practice. In his article, Slight believes that when his argument is considered, then it would be legal to perform euthanasia.

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Roman, Begona. "Euthanasia: Between Personal Moral and Civic Ethics." Euthanasia - The "Good Death" Controversy in Humans and Animals (2011). Print.

According to the author of this book, there are diverse perceptions as to what entails a 'good death', and there are characteristically diverse judgments. When used in accordance with the law and the consideration of the patient's rights, then euthanasia is the better choice for the terminally ill. It is, however, important to note that euthanasia should not be connected with moral indifference. Irrespective of its use, the word euthanasia is associated with very strong emotions that provoke some rational arguments concerning the autonomy of individual rights and dignity issues. The focus on human dignity and appreciation of mutual interdependence contributes towards new sensitivity in the form of solidarity and compassion for other people. While some argue that euthanasia is usually contrary to human dignity and is associated with violation of human rights, others argue that dying due to miserable suffering is a bigger violation of human dignity, and hence euthanasia amounts to dignified death.

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Chan, Leo, and Donald Lien. "The Value of Planned Death." The Journal of Socio-Economics 39.6 (2010): 692-695. Print.

In this book, the authors argue for theoretical models necessary for the evaluation of economic benefits and costs for the physician-assisted murder, otherwise known as euthanasia. The idea of euthanasia is designed with consideration of real options available. The authors' modeling of the decision indicates that euthanasia is optimally applied when some conditions are put in place. For instance, considering the ever rising medical care cost, the ill people might have no option but resort to euthanasia. The reason is that these people are not in a position to control or cure their disease and in instances when the patients are subjected to much pain. In this regard, Chan and Lien propose establishment of a model of suicide, according to which, people are bound to commit suicide when the expected remainder of their life utility for a living is not positive. Care must though be considered so that the decision does not have an emotional impact on the patient and other close relatives. When the benefits outweigh the costs, then, it is a rational choice.


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